Study Guide for Anatomy Test 1

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Anatomy Outline Notes Exam 1

Developmental Anatomy – is the way anatomy changes over time in a single species
-somites are segmental blocks found in embryos that form muscles & vertebrae etc.

Comparative Anatomy – is the comparison of anatomies between different species.
-all known vertebrates have common feature (skull & vertebrae): this leads to evolutionary theory.

Hierarchy of Structural Organization
-Body -> System -> Organ -> Tissue -> Cells -> Chemical/Molecular -> Atomic
-Four types of Tissue: Connective, Epithelia, Muscle, Nerve Guiding Principle of Anatomy
-The function of an anatomically distinct structure can be in part explained by understanding the organization of its components. Observing
-unaided eye = gross anatomy
-light microscope – 1 mm -> 1 micrometer [cytology & histology]
-Transmission Electron Microscope – 1mm -> 1 nanometer [cytology & histology] Basic Vertebrate Body Plan
-important structures develop early and are present in all vertebrates

Dorsal Nerve Cord – hollow cord that forms brain and spinal cord Notochord – a stiffened rod below the spinal cord usually replaces by vertebrae, organizing axis for the vertebrate Muscular Tail – extends beyond digestive tract

Braincase – cartilage that surrounds the brain, becomes skull. Pharyngeal arches – may persist (gills) or become other structures in adults Ventral Body cavity – contains thoracic and abdominopelvic organs.

Eleven Major Body Systems
-Integumentary – protections from environment, and temperature control
-Skeletal -support, protection of soft tissues; mineral storage, blood formation
-Muscular – locomotion, support, heat production
-Nervous – directing immediate response to stimuli, by coordinating other systems.
-Endocrine – directing long term changes in the activities of other organ systems.
-Cardiovascular - internal transport of cells and dissolved substance: nutrients, wastes gases.
-Lymphoid – defense against infection and disease
-Respiratory – delivery of air to sites where gas exchange can occur between air & blood.
-Digestive – processing of food and absorption of organic nutrients, minerals, vitamins and water.
-Urinary – elimination of excess water, salts, waste products, and control of pH
-Reproductive – Production of sex cells and hormones.

Latin/Greek Names of Body Landmarks
FRONT| Femur - thigh|
Cephalon – head | Patella – kneecap|
-Cranium – skull| Pes - Foot|
-Facies - face| Crus - leg |
-Frans – forehead| Tarsus – ankle|
-Oculus – eyes| Digits - toes|
-Auris- ears | Hallux – big toes|
-Bucca – cheeks| |
-Nasus – nose| |
-Oris – mouth | |
-Mentis – chin | |
Trunk| |
-Thoracis - chest| |
-Mamma - breast| |
-Abdomen – abdomen| |
-Umbilicus – naval | |
-Pelvis| |
-Inguen – groin| |
-Pubis| |
-Axilla – armpit| |
-Brachium - upper arm| |
-Antecubitus – front of elbow| |
-Antebrachium – forearm| |
-Manus - hands| |
-Carpus – wrist | |
-Palma – palms| |
-Pollex – thumb| |
-Digits – fingers | |

Four quadrants of the abdomen/pelvis or Nine regions

Right Hypochondriac Region| Epigastric Region | Left Hypochondriac Region| Right Lumbar Region| Umbilical Region| Left Lumbar Region| Right Inguinal Region| Hypogastric Region| Left Inguinal Region|

Directional Terms

Proximal & Distal – for limbs
Lateral – away from axis
Medial - towards axis

Transverse – axial – cross-sectional
Sagittal – left and right divide
-mid-sagittal – equal divide
-parasagittal - unequal
Frontal – posterior & anterior divide

Cross Section of basic vertebrate body plan “typical” cross section

Notochord
Dorsal Nerve Cord
Mediastinum
Ventral Body Cavity
Visceral Wall
Parietal Wall

Notochord
Dorsal Nerve Cord
Mediastinum
Ventral Body...
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