Developmental Anatomy – is the way anatomy changes over time in a single species
-somites are segmental blocks found in embryos that form muscles & vertebrae etc.
Comparative Anatomy – is the comparison of anatomies between different species.
-all known vertebrates have common feature (skull & vertebrae): this leads to evolutionary theory.
Hierarchy of Structural Organization
-Body -> System -> Organ -> Tissue -> Cells -> Chemical/Molecular -> Atomic
-Four types of Tissue: Connective, Epithelia, Muscle, Nerve Guiding Principle of Anatomy
-The function of an anatomically distinct structure can be in part explained by understanding the organization of its components. Observing
-unaided eye = gross anatomy
-light microscope – 1 mm -> 1 micrometer [cytology & histology]
-Transmission Electron Microscope – 1mm -> 1 nanometer [cytology & histology] Basic Vertebrate Body Plan
-important structures develop early and are present in all vertebrates
Dorsal Nerve Cord – hollow cord that forms brain and spinal cord Notochord – a stiffened rod below the spinal cord usually replaces by vertebrae, organizing axis for the vertebrate Muscular Tail – extends beyond digestive tract
Braincase – cartilage that surrounds the brain, becomes skull. Pharyngeal arches – may persist (gills) or become other structures in adults Ventral Body cavity – contains thoracic and abdominopelvic organs.
Eleven Major Body Systems
-Integumentary – protections from environment, and temperature control
-Skeletal -support, protection of soft tissues; mineral storage, blood formation
-Muscular – locomotion, support, heat production
-Nervous – directing immediate response to stimuli, by coordinating other systems.
-Endocrine – directing long term changes in the activities of other organ systems.
-Cardiovascular - internal transport of cells and dissolved substance: nutrients, wastes gases.
-Lymphoid – defense against infection and disease
-Respiratory – delivery of air to sites where gas exchange can occur between air & blood.
-Digestive – processing of food and absorption of organic nutrients, minerals, vitamins and water.
-Urinary – elimination of excess water, salts, waste products, and control of pH
-Reproductive – Production of sex cells and hormones.
Latin/Greek Names of Body Landmarks
FRONT| Femur - thigh|
Cephalon – head | Patella – kneecap|
-Cranium – skull| Pes - Foot|
-Facies - face| Crus - leg |
-Frans – forehead| Tarsus – ankle|
-Oculus – eyes| Digits - toes|
-Auris- ears | Hallux – big toes|
-Bucca – cheeks| |
-Nasus – nose| |
-Oris – mouth | |
-Mentis – chin | |
-Thoracis - chest| |
-Mamma - breast| |
-Abdomen – abdomen| |
-Umbilicus – naval | |
-Inguen – groin| |
-Axilla – armpit| |
-Brachium - upper arm| |
-Antecubitus – front of elbow| |
-Antebrachium – forearm| |
-Manus - hands| |
-Carpus – wrist | |
-Palma – palms| |
-Pollex – thumb| |
-Digits – fingers | |
Four quadrants of the abdomen/pelvis or Nine regions
Right Hypochondriac Region| Epigastric Region | Left Hypochondriac Region| Right Lumbar Region| Umbilical Region| Left Lumbar Region| Right Inguinal Region| Hypogastric Region| Left Inguinal Region|
Proximal & Distal – for limbs
Lateral – away from axis
Medial - towards axis
Transverse – axial – cross-sectional
Sagittal – left and right divide
-mid-sagittal – equal divide
-parasagittal - unequal
Frontal – posterior & anterior divide
Cross Section of basic vertebrate body plan “typical” cross section
Dorsal Nerve Cord
Ventral Body Cavity
Dorsal Nerve Cord