STUDY GUIDE FOR FINAL EXAM AP120
CHAPTER 16 Respiratory system (~20)
1) The atmosphere is composed of which gases? 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, .04 carbon dioxide Which gas is most abundant in the air you breath? Nitrogen 2) Define dypsnea – difficult or labored breathing, air hunger hyperventilation – breathing rapidly and deeply hypoventilation, cyanosis – a blueish color of the skin and mucous membranes and hypoxia – deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues (oxygen levels are too low) 3) Trace the path of air flow through the respiratory tract from the nose to the alveolus. Nose Pharyx Trachea Bronchi (lungs start here) Bronchioles Alveoli 4) Describe the anatomy of the larynx. Made out of 3 cartilages Name the three largest laryngeal cartilages and the bone involved in swallowing. Epiglottic cartilage, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, hyoid bone Which cartilage keeps food from entering the glottis? Epiglottis 5) What is the pharynx? The throat What role does it play in respiration? for air passing between the nasal cavity and the larynx In digestion? Passageway for food traveling from the oral cavity to esophagus 6) Name at least 3 roles of the nose/nasal cavity. Warms, cleanes, humidifies inhaled air, detects odor, chamber that amplifies the voice, mucus traps bacteria and the bacteria is destroyed by lysozyme 7) What keeps the food that we swallow from going down our ‘windpipes’? The epiglottis covers the trachea 8) What type of epithelial tissue lines the nose? Ciliated pseudostratified epithelium The trachea – stratified squamous epithelium The alveoli? Smooth muscle or simple squamous? 9) Oxygen needs hemoglobin to travel through the cardiovascular system. Why? Because oxygen binds to the iron containing protein in red blood cells while the remainder of the oxygen dissolves in r.b.c.s How does hemoglobin transport oxygen? Oxygen binds to hemoglobin and moves from higher concentration to lower concentration How does carbon dioxide travel through the bloodstream? Is transported in the blood plasma in a dissolved state or bound to hemoglobin in the form of bicarbonate 10) What 2 factors keep the delicate alveolus from collapsing? Elastic and collagenous fibers support the alveolar wall What is the ‘respiratory membrane’? membrane composed of a capillary wall, an alveolar wall, and their basement membranes through which blood an inspired air exchange gas 11) Explain the equilibration of gases. What is the role of diffusion at the alveolar capillary? O2 moves from where it’s mostly crowded to where it’s less crowded. It’s mostly crowded in the alveolus so it leaps into the blood stream while CO2 leaps into the alveolus and get’s distrubted out the body. How is it different at the tissue capillary? There is more o2 in the blood so it leaps out into the muscle tissues where it’s needed and the co2 hops into the blood so it can get distributed out of the body. 12) Cartilage keeps the trachea and bronchi open. What is different about the cartilage in the trachea and primary bronchi compared to the secondary and tertiary bronchi? How are the bronchioles different from the tertiary bronchi? 13) The right lung has 3 lobes and the left only 2. Why? How does this affect the primary bronchi? Because the left lung needs room for the heart.
14) Explain the mucociliary escalator. What does it do and how does it do it? Mucus is moving from deep in the lungs to the pharynx and the cilia is moving it. 15) How does low blood oxygen affect respiratory rate? How does low blood pH affect respiratory rate? Which is the stronger effect? What is the role of CO2 in the regulation of respiratory rate? 16) Use the concept of diffusion to explain how the blood picks up CO2 from the tissues while it delivers oxygen and how it picks up oxygen in the alveolar capillary while dropping off CO2. Diffusion is when 02 moves from a higher concentration to a lower concentration. There is more CO2 in...
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