Study Guide Exam 4

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Study Guide 4

CH. 21

Genomics – the study of whole sets of genes and their interactions.

Bioinformatics – is the application of computational methods to the storage and analysis of biological data

Linkage Map – maps the location of several thousand genetic markers on each chromosome

Physical Map – Expresses the distance between genetic markers, usually as the number of base pairs along the DNA

Metagenomics – DNA from a group of species (a metagenome) is collected from an environmental sample and sequenced

Gene Annotation – identification of protein coding genes within DNA sequences in a database

Proteomics – the systematic study of all proteins encoded by a genome

Pseudogenes – former genes that have accumulated mutations and are nonfunctional

Repetitive DNA – present in multiple copies in the genome, ¾ of Repetitive DNA is made up of transposable elements and sequences related to them

Transposable elements – first evidence for mobile DNA segments came from geneticist Barbara McClintocks breeding experiments from Indian Corn, She identified changes in the color of corn kernals that made sense only by postulating that some genetic elements move from other genome locations into the genes for kernel color. These Transposable elements move from one site to another in a cell’s DNA; they are present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Transposons – Euckaryotic transposable element, moves by means of a DNA intermediate

Retrotransposons – Eukaryotic transposable element, moves by means of an RNA intermediate

Simple Sequence DNA – contains many copies of tandemly repeated short sequences

Short tandem repeats (STR) series of repeating units of 2-5 nucleotides, repeat number can vary among sites or individuals

Multigene Families – collections of identical or very similar genes, some consist of identical DNA sequences, usually clustered tandemly, such as those that code for rRNA products

Evo-devo- evolutionary developmental biology, the study of the evolution of developmental processes in multicellular organisms

Homeobox – molecular analysis of the homeotic genes in Drosophila has shown that they all include a sequence called Homeobox

Human Genome Project/3 stages – The most ambitious mapping project to date for sequencing of the human genome, officially begun as of 1990, the sequencing was largely completed by 2003. The three stages are: Genetic mapping (or linkage, Physical mapping and DNA sequencing

CH. 22

Evolution – can be defined by Darwin’s phrase decsent with modification, it can be viewed as both a pattern and a process

Fossils – remains and traces of organisms from the past, usually found in sedimentary rock, appears in layers or strata

Strata – layers

Paleontology – study of fossils, was largely developed by French scientist Georges Cuvier

Catastrophism – speculating that each boundary between strata represents a catastrophe

Uniformitarianism – (Lyells principle) – that the mechanisms of change are constant over time

Adaptation – Darwin perceived that adaptation to the environment and the origin of new species as closely related processes

Natural Selection – 1844, Darwin wrote an essay, a process in which individuals with favorable inherited traits are more likely to survive and reproduce

Artificial Selection – Humans have modified other species by selecting and breeding individuals with desired traits—this is artificial selection

Homology – similarity resulting from common ancestry

Homologous structures – anatomical resemblances that represent variations on a structural theme present in a common ancestor

Vestigial structures – remnants of features that served important functions in the organisms ancestors

Evolutionary tree – hypotheses about the relationships among different groups

Convergent evolution – the evolution of similar or analogous features in distantly related groups

Analogous – these traits arise when...
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