Study Guide: Child Psychology

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EXAM 3 REVIEW

MAPPING THEORIES TO THEORISTS

* Attachment theory
* John Bowlby
* Children are biologically predisposed to develop attachments with caregivers as a means of increasing the chances of their own survival * Secure base is Bowlby’s term for an attachment figure’s presence that provides an infant or toddler with a sense of security that makes it possible for the infant to explore the environment * Four Phases

* Preattachment phase (birth – 6 weeks)
* Infant produces innate signals (crying) that bring others to his or her side and is comforted by the interaction that follows (being picked up) * Attachment-in-the-making (6 weeks – 8 months) * The phase in which infants begin to respond preferentially to familiar people * Clear-cut attachment (6-8 months – 1.5-2 years) * Infant actively seeks contact with their regular caregivers and typically shows separation protest or distress when the caregiver departs * Stranger anxiety appears

* Reciprocal relationships (1.5-2 years – on)
* Children takes an active role in developing working partnerships with their caregivers * Internal Working Model of Attachment
* The child develops a mental representation of the self, of attachment figures, and of relationships in general * This working model guides children’s interactions with caregivers and other people in infancy and at older ages * Operant Conditioning

* B. F. Skinner
* Research on the nature and function of reinforcement * Attention is the most powerful reinforcement
* Intermittent Reinforcement is most powerful type of reinforcement * Behavior modification
* Classical Conditioning
* John Watson
* Behaviorism
* Children’s development determined by social environment * Learning through conditioning was the primary mechanism of development * Psychosexual Development
* Sigmund Freud
* Behavior motivated by the need to satisfy basic biological drives * Mostly unconscious
* Universal stages in which psychic energy becomes focused on different erogenous zones * Psychic energy
* The biologically based instinctual drives that energize behavior, thoughts, and feelings * Erogenous zones
* Areas of the body that become erotically sensitive in successive stages of development * Five Stages
* Oral (first year)
* The primary source of satisfaction and pleasure is oral activity. During this stage, the mother is established as the strongest love object. * ID
* The biological drives with which the infant is born * The earliest and most primitive personality structure * Unconscious and operates with the goal of seeking pleasure * Anal (1 – 3 years)

* The primary source of pleasure comes from defecation * EGO
* Emerges in the first year
* The rational, logical, problem-solving component of personality * Phallic (3 – 6 years)
* Characterized by the localization of pleasure in the genitalia * SUPEREGO
* Based on the child’s internalization (or adoption as his or her own) of the parents’ attributes, beliefs, and standards * Requires resolution of the Oedipus and Electra complexes * Latency (6 – 12 years)

* Characterized by the channeling of sexual energy into socially acceptable activities * Genital (12+ years)
* Sexual maturation is complete and sexual intercourse becomes a major goal * Healthy is there is culmination in the...
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