1.Define power and contrast leadership and power.
2.Contrast the five bases of power.
3.Explain the role of dependence in power relationships.
4.Identify nine power or influence tactics and their contingencies. 5.Show the connection between sexual harassment and the abuse of power. 6.Identify the causes and consequences of political behavior. 7.Apply impression management techniques.
8.Determine whether a political action is ethical.
Chapter 13, Power and Politics – Section Outlines
I.Power is the capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B, so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes. A.Definition of power the ability to influence the behavior of others. 1.Potential
2.Dependency - B ’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires. B.Contrasting leadership and power.
1.Leaders use power as a means of attaining group goals.
2.Power does not require goal compatibility, but relies on dependency. 3.While leadership focuses on the downward influence of one's followers, power also deals with lateral and upward influence. II.Bases of power
A.Formal power = based on an individual’s position in an organization. 1.Coercive power: A power base that is dependent on fear of the negative results from failing to comply such as controlling by force of basic physiological or safety needs. 2.Reward power: Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable. 3.Legitimate (formal authority) power: The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization. B.Personal power = Influence derived from an individual’s characteristics. 1.Expert power: Influence based on special skills or knowledge. 2.Referent power: Influence based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. C.Dependency: The Key to Power
1.General dependency postulate: The greater B ’s dependence on A, the more power A has over B. 2.Factors creating dependency
a.Importance – think of technology engineers of Gettyimages b.Scarcity – think of Ferruccio Lamborghini; he memorized the manual and destroyed it. c.Nonsubstitutability – the fewer viable substitutes for a resource, the more power control over that resource provides. III.Power Tactics: Ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions. Rational persuasion, inspirational appeals, and consultation tend to be the most effective, especially when the audience is highly interested in the outcomes of a decision process. A.Legitimacy: Relying on your authority position or saying a request accords with organizational policies or rules. B.Rational persuasion: Presenting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrate a request is reasonable. C.Inspirational appeals: Developing emotional commitment by appealing to a target’s values, needs, hopes, and aspirations. D.Consultation: Increasing the target’s support by involving him or her in deciding how you will accomplish your plan. E.Exchange: Rewarding the target with benefits or favors in exchange for following a request. F.Personal appeals: Asking for compliance based on friendship or loyalty. G.Ingratiation: Using flattery, praise, or friendly behavior prior to making a request. H.Pressure: Using warnings, repeated demands, and threats.
I.Coalitions: Enlisting the aid or support of others to persuade the target to agree. J.Political Skill: The ability to influence others in such a way as to enhance one’s objective. IV.Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace
A.Any unwanted activity of a sexual nature that affects an individual’s employment and creates a hostile work environment. B.Sexual harassment negatively affects job attitudes and leads those who feel harassed to withdraw from the organization. C.Some ways managers can protect themselves and their employees from sexual harassment: 1....