# Study Guide

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• Published : February 3, 2013

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Week 7 Knowledge CheckResults
Concepts Categorical Claims Mastery 100% Questions

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Categorical Logic

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Categorical Syllogism

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Inductive Arguments

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Fallacies in Inductive Reasoning

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Concept: Categorical Claims
Concepts Categorical Claims Mastery 100% Questions

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1.Which of the following is the best definition of the term "equivalent categorical claims"? A. B. C. D. Two claims are equivalent if they have the same subject or predicate terms. Two claims are equivalent if they have the same subject and predicate terms. Two claims are equivalent if, and only if, they would be true in exactly the same situations. Two claims are equivalent if, and only if, they have the same subject and predicate terms.

Correct! Equivalent categorical claims are claims that essentially "say the same thing" with different wording. For example, "Cats are mammals" means the same thing as "There are no cats that aren't mammals."

2.Which of the following is true of contrary claims? A. B. C. D. They always have opposite truth values. They can both be false, but they can’t both be true. They can both be true and false. They can both be true, but they can’t both be false.

Correct! Assuming that the categories we are talking about are not entirely empty, contrary claims cannot both be true because they have opposite qualities (i.e., one is affirmative and one is negative). For example, if "All cats are animals" is true, then its contrary "No cats are animals" has to be false. (However, they can both be false—"All animals are cats" is false, and so is its contrary, "No animals are cats.")

3.Which of the following is true of sub-contrary claims? A. B. C. D. They can both be false, but they can’t both be true. They can both be true and false. They always have opposite truth values. They can both be true, but they can’t both be false.

Correct! Assuming that the categories we are talking about are not entirely empty, both sub-contrary claims can be true because it is possible for some members of a category to have a feature while some others do not. For example, "Some animals are furry" and "Some animals are not furry" are both true. They cannot both be false because if it is false that some members have a feature, then it has to be true that they don't, and vise versa. If it is false that "Some cats are robots," then the sub-contrary "Some cats are not robots" has to be true.

Concept: Categorical Logic
Concepts Categorical Logic Mastery 100% Questions
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4.What is the study of relations among categories or groups of things called? A. B. C. D. Complimentary logic Categorical logic Contrapositive logic Converse logic

Correct! Categorical logic is designed to consider how things are included and excluded in categories.

Concept: Categorical Syllogism
Concepts Mastery Questions

Categorical Syllogism

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5.What is a deductive argument with two premises called? A. B. C. D. Syllogism Complementary term Contradictory claim Square of opposition

Correct! A typical categorical syllogism is devised of three parts including a major premise and a minor premise that conform to specific rules.

Concept: Inductive Arguments
Concepts Inductive Arguments Mastery 100% Questions

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6.Which of the following statements best differentiates a deductive argument from an inductive argument? A. An inductive argument sets out to guarantee the truth of its conclusion based on the truth of its premises, while a deductive argument attempts to offer a probability that its conclusion is true based on the truth of its premises. A deductive argument sets out to guarantee the truth of its conclusion based on the truth of its premises, while an inductive argument attempts to offer a probability that its conclusion is true based on the truth of its premises. A deductive argument has true premises, while an...