A foreign woman resident in Athens (ca. 470-400 B.C.E.) and partner of the statesman Pericles who was famed for her learning and wit.
A Chinese woman writer and court official (45-116 C.E.) whose work provides valuable insight on the position of women in classical China.
The Indian social class of priests.
The system of social organization in India that has evolved over millennia; it is based on an original division of the populace into four inherited classes (varna), with the addition of thousands of social distinctions based on occupation (jatis), which became the main cell of social life in India.
In Indian belief, performance of the duties appropriate to an individual's caste; good performance will lead to rebirth in a higher caste.
The dependent, semi-enslaved class of ancient Sparta whose social discontent prompted the militarization of Spartan society.
In the Indian caste system, the thousands of social distinctions based on occupation .
In Indian belief, the force generated by one's behavior in a previous life that decides the level at which an individual will be reborn.
The Indian social class of warriors and rulers.
A prominent and influential statesman of ancient Athens (ca. 495-429 B.C.E.), he presided over Athens's Golden Age.
In Indian social practice, the idea that members of higher castes must adhere to strict regulations limiting or forbidding their contact with objects and members of lower castes to preserve their own caste standing and their relationship with the gods.
A term used to describe members of China's landowning families, reflecting their wealth from the land and the privilege that they derived as government officials.
A Roman gladiator who led the most serious slave revolt in Roman history from 73 to 71 B.C.E.).
The "three obediences"
In Chinese Confucian thought, the notion that a woman is permanently subordinate to male control: first to her father, then to her husband, and finally to her son.
An Indian social class that emerged below the Sudras and whose members performed the most unclean and polluting work.
The four major social divisions in India's caste system: the Brahmin priest class, the Kshatriya warrior/administrator class, the Vaishya merchant/farmer class, and the Shudra laborer class.
A Han court official who usurped the throne and ruled from 8 C.E. to 23 C.E.; noted for his reform movement that included the breakup of large estates.
The only female "emperor" in Chinese history (r. 690-705 C.E.), Empress Wu patronized scholarship, worked to elevate the position of women, and provoked a backlash of Confucian misogynist invective.
The Chinese emperor (r. 141-87 B.C.E.) who started the Chinese civil service system with the establishment in 124 B.C.E. of an imperial academy for future officials.
Yellow Turban Rebellion
A massive Chinese peasant uprising inspired by Daoist teachings that began in 184 C.E. with the goal of establishing a new golden age of equality and harmony.
Like the First Civilizations, those of the classical era
were patriarchal in organization.
China was unique in the ancient world in the extent to which
its social organization was shaped by the actions of the state.
Chinese state officials
took examinations and were chosen for official positions on the basis of their performance during the Han dynasty
The Chinese state opposed the growth of a landlord class in control of large landed estates because
in some cases wealthy landlords could raise their own military forces that could challenge the authority of the emperor.
Which of the following statements concerning Chinese merchants is false?
State officials and landlords ostracized...