Psychologists formally define learning as:
A) a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge that is due to past experience. The process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses is called: C) conditioning.
Essentially, classical conditioning is a process of learning: D) an association between two stimuli.
If you shine a bright light directly into a person's eye, the pupil of the eye will reflexively constrict. Using Pavlov's terminology, the bright light would be termed the _____, and the pupil constricting would be termed the _____. C) UCS; UCR
Pavlov found that once he conditioned a dog to salivate in response to a tone, a tone that was slightly higher or lower in pitch would also make the dog salivate. This phenomenon is called: D) stimulus generalization.
Fred's dog was classically conditioned to salivate at the sound of a bell. Fred then repeatedly paired the bell with another stimulus, a whistle. Now whenever he blows the whistle, his dog salivates, even though the whistle has never been paired with food. This example illustrates: A) higher order conditioning (second-order conditioning).
Every Friday, Dr. Cruz would give a quiz in his psychology class. Students quickly learned to be nervous on Friday mornings, just before each quiz. Halfway through the semester, Dr. Cruz stopped giving quizzes on Fridays and the students' anxiety began to diminish with each passing week in which there was no quiz. The decrease in the students' anxiety may be attributed to the process of: B) extinction.
John B. Watson believed that psychology should study:
B) observable behavior.
The famous “Little Albert” study conducted by John Watson and Rosalie Rayner demonstrated: B) that it was possible to condition an emotional reaction to a previously neutral stimulus. Which of the following best illustrates classical conditioning? C) Because his older brother once locked him in the closet, Allen gets anxious in small...
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