1.) Primary stuttering behaviors are overt, observable signs of a speech fluency breakdown. Some examples are: repeating sounds, syllables, words or phrases, silent blocks and prolongation. Secondary stuttering behaviors are less obvious signs that are developed over time by the stutterer, such as; eye blinking, lip movement, facial tension, and avoidance of sounds, words, people or speaking situations. 2.) Single-syllable-word repetition: I-I-I want to go there. Syllable repetition: He’s a b-b-b-boy.
Prolongation: Sssssssee me swing!
Block: T----oronto is cool.
3.) SLP’s try to measure the stutterer’s attitudes and feeling about communication so that it can help them choose the correct treatment. A mild stutterer may only need indirect treatment, while a severe stutterer may need more direct treatment if they have already developed several secondary behaviors, such as; no eye contact or avoiding speaking situations. 4.) There are five basic perceptual signs of a voice disorder. They are pitch, loudness, quality, nonphonatory behaviors and aphonia, or the absence of phonation. Pitch: Three aspects of pitch may suggest a voice disorder. The first is monopitch which is when the voice lacks normal inflection variation and the ability to change pitch voluntarily. The second is inappropriate pitch which is when the voice is judged to be outside the normal range of pitch for the age and/or sex of the person. The third is pitch breaks which are sudden uncontrolled upward or downward changes in pictch. Loudness: There are two aspects of loudness that may suggest a voice disorder. The first is monoloudness which is a voice that lacks normal variations of intensity that occur during speech, and there may be an inability to change the vocal loudness voluntarily. The second is loudness variations which are extreme variations in vocal intensity in which the voice is either too soft or too loud for the particular speaking situation. Vocal Quality: A hoarse/rough voice lacks clarity, and the voice is noisy. Breathiness is the perception of audible air escaping through the glottis during phonation. Vocal tremor is usually an indication of a loss of central nervous system control over the laryngeal mechanism. Strain and struggle behaviors are related to difficulties initiating and maintaining voice. Nonphonatory behaviors: Stridor is noisy breathing or involuntary sound that accompanies inspiration and expiration. Another nonphonatory behavior is excessive throat clearing. Aphonia: Consistent aphonia is the persistent absence of voice and perceived as whispering. Episodic aphonia is uncontrolled, unpredictable aphonic breaks in voice that can last for a fraction of a second or longer. 5.) The voice symptoms of unilateral vocal fold paralysis include a hoarse, weak, and breathy voice quality. This is because the paralyzed vocal ford is flaccid in comparison to the nonparalyzed vocal fold. Therefore, the two vocal folds vibrate at different speeds, resulting in diplophonia, the perception of two vocal frequencies. 6.) Hypernasality is a resonance problem created by the nasal cavity acting inappropriately as a second “filter” coupled to the oral cavity. Addition of this second filter alters the vocal tract’s output in such a way that it sounds as though the individual is talking through the nose. Pinching your nostrils shut while speaking reduces the normal nasal resonance, and as a result your voice sounds unnatural. This lack of nasal resonance is called hyponasality. Your voice may have a hyponasal tone when you experience a bad head cold. 7.) Mild, moderate and severe articulation/phonological disorders differ because 75% of children with mild-or-moderate forms of the disorder, and whose problems do not stem from a medical condition, the symptoms resolve before age six. In many other cases, children who receive treatment eventually develop normal or close to normal speech. Severe cases that are due to a neurological...
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