Specifications

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  • Topic: Geotechnical engineering, Reinforced concrete, Concrete
  • Pages : 9 (2852 words )
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  • Published : February 9, 2013
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EXCAVATION, GRADING, AND FILL
The primary section dealing with excavation, grading, and fill placement in the International Building Code is Section 1804. Other sections of the International Building Code that deal with excavation, grading, and fill compaction are as follows: * Special inspections (Section 1704.7). Special inspections for grading and fill compaction (site soil inspections) as presented in the International Building Code are summarized in Table 18.1 of this book. * Site work (Section 3304.1). Excavation and fills are also discussed in Chapter 33 (Safeguards During Construction). The information in Section 3304.1 of the International Building Code has been summarized in Table 18.3 of this book. * Grading (Appendix J). Grading regulations are presented in Appendix J of the International Building Codeand will be briefly discussed in Sec. 18.3.3 of this book. 18.3.1. Excavation and Grading

For excavation and grading, the International Building Code states: Section 1804.1 Excavation near foundations. Excavation for any purpose shall not remove lateral support from any foundation without first underpinning or protecting the foundation against settlement or lateral translation.| Section 1804.2 Placement of backfill. The excavation outside the foundation shall be backfilled with soil that is free of organic material, construction debris, cobbles and boulders or with a controlled low-strength material (CLSM). The backfill shall be placed in lifts and compacted in a manner that does not damage the foundation or the waterproofing or dampproofing material. Exception: CLSM need not be compacted.| Section 1804.3 Site grading. The ground immediately adjacent to the foundation shall be sloped away from the building at a slope of not less than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope) for a minimum distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) measured perpendicular to the face of the wall. If physical obstructions or lot lines prohibit 10 feet (3048 mm) of horizontal distance, a 5-percent slope shall be provided to an approved alternative method of diverting water away from the foundation. Swales used for this purpose shall be sloped a minimum of 2 percent where located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the building foundation. Impervious surfaces within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the building foundation shall be sloped a minimum of 2 percent away from the building. Exception: Where climatic or soil conditions warrant, the slope of the ground away from the building foundation shall be permitted to be reduced to not less than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope).| The procedure used to establish the final ground level adjacent to the foundation shall account for additional settlement of the backfill.| This section of the Code also provides a regulation that restricts grading which will result in an increase in flood levels during the occurrence of the design flood (Section 1804.4). The earlier quote refers to a controlled low-strength material (CLSM), which is also known as soil-cement slurry, soil-cement grout, flowable fill, controlled density fill, unshrinkable fill, K-Krete, and other similar names (see ASTM D 4832). CLSM is typically used as backfill material around structures. The geotechnical engineer will often provide much more extensive grading specifications then those listed earlier. 18.3.2. Compacted Fill

For compacted fill material, the International Building Code states: Section 1804.5 Compacted fill material. Where shallow foundations will bear on compacted fill material, the compacted fill shall comply with the provisions of an approved geotechnical report, as set forth in Section 1803. Exception: Compacted fill material 12 inches (305 mm) in depth or less need not comply with an approved report, provided the in-place dry density is not less than 90 percent of the maximum dry density at optimum moisture content in accordance with ASTM D 1557. The compaction shall be verified by...
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