Goal: reach desired ends through an honest means
I. Persuasion ‘the art’ –faculty of observing in a given case the available means of persuasion. Persuasion is symbolic, non-coercive (not forced) influence
Context—social, cultural, political climate
**Equal opp. To persuade, Complete revelation of agendas—let audience know complete list of goals and how you intend to get audience there, Critical receivers—have to understand what’s being said
Responsible agent—takes communication seriously
1. Take responsibility for what is said and deal with consequences 2. Fosters informed choice—gives all sides
3. Appeals to the best in people—not the worst
1. Aware of attempts to influence—be aware of motives
2. Informed about important topics
3. Know their own biases—know what predisposes us—careful not to engage in defensive listening 4. Aware of methods of persuasion
*Influence the beliefs, attitude, and acts of others
Focus on motivation: What motivates listeners?
Make your message personally relevant
Demonstrate the benefit of change
Set modest goals
Target issues the audience feels strongly about
II. Speeches built upon argument, 3 forms of appeals: Logos, Ethos, Pathos 1. Logos—appeal to reason or logic, *Aristotle wished that all appealing done through LOGOS *Our ability to articulate rationality, appealing to logic and using reasoning to persuade
2. Ethos—credibility, moral character.
To establish speaker credibility:
* Present topics honestly, establish identification, commonality, and goodwill, use personal knowledge 3. Pathos—emotional states of audience. Pride, love, anger etc. drive our actions--Done through vivid imagery **Aristotle said: Two main sources of immediate emotion= LOVE AND FEAR
Major premise obvious statement
Minor premiseextension of major premises logic
Conclusionderived from above two
All humans are mortal
Socrates is human
Socrates is mortal
* Created by Aristotle
* He claims that this communicates without saying EVERYTHING—audience can fill in blanks * Idea is that we can fill in the blank ourselves—that process is powerful—us persuading ourselves
3 cornerstones of ethical fitness:
Credibility-confidence, character, ETHOS (as speaker)—worthy of trust *Makes people want to listen to us, tend to it with care
Integrity—a state of incorruptibility—should signal that we are willing to avoid compromising the truth for the sake of personal expediency Stability—respect for others, cooperation, self-sacrifice
Being audience centered—to whom and for whom, worthy, honored, and respected as individuals
III. Target listener needs
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs—each of us has a basic set of needs that range from crucial to self-improving.
Ex. To convince one to use seatbelts, appeal to ones need for safety.
5 basic needs: Physiological, Safety, Social, Self-esteem, and Self-actualization
IV. Mental Engagement
Central processing: seriously consider your message, more likely to act Peripheral processing: Lack motivation to judge argument based on merits—most likely won’t experience meaningful change **For Central processing Link argument to practical concerns, present message at appropriate level of understanding, demonstrate common bond, stress credibility
V. Sound arguments—offer conclusion, evidence, link to reasoning Claim: states conclusion w/ evidence. A line of reasoning is called a warrant. 3 Fact: Focus on truth/lie, what will/won’t happen—address issue with 2+ sides Value: Address judgment issues, right VS wrong
Policy: recommend specific course of action—propose specific outcome
Deductive reasoning: begin with general principle, use specifics, lead to conclusion Inductive: from specific to generalizations...