Spanish Study Guide

Topics: Past tense, Grammatical tenses, Romance languages Pages: 6 (1562 words) Published: December 8, 2012
Spanish Study Guide
Capitulo 10
1. Present Perfect Tense
a. Formed with the present tense of the verb “haber” (to have) followed by a form of the verb called the past participle i. Ex: “Han visitado ustedes Europa?”
b. HABER forms
ii. Yo- He
iii. Tu- Has
iv. El/Ella – Ha
v. Nos- Hemos
vi. Ustedes – Han
2. Past Participle Tense
c. Formed by adding –ado to the stem of –ar verbs and –ido to the stem of –er and –ir verbs vii. Ex- hablar- hablado
viii. Ex- Jugar – Jugado
ix. Ex- Preparar- Preparado
x. Ex- Comer – comido
xi. Ex- vivir – vivido
xii. Ex- dormer- dormido
d. Ya= (already) / Todavia no= (not yet) are adverbs used with the present perfect tense 3. Por/Para
e. Para indicates movement toward a destination
xiii. Also used to indicate a deadline by which something is expected to happen f. Por indicates motion through or by a place
xiv. Also used to indicate means of transportation
xv. Also indicates a length of time
xvi. Also indicates during, in, or at
Capitulo 9

1. Reflexive verbs with special meaning
a. Parecerse= (to look like)
i. Yo= me parezco
ii. Tu= te pareces
iii. Usted= Se parece
iv. Nos= nos parecemos
v. Ustedes= se parecen
b. Llevarse= (to get along with)
2. Expressing for, from, and to whom
c. A mi= to, at me
d. De ti = pf, from you
e. En el = in, on him/it
f. Para ella= for her
g. Sin nosotros= without us
h. Con Ellos= with them
i. Para vos = for you
3. The imperfect Tense
j. This is used to describe actions that occurred repeatedly or habitually in the past. English version is either “used to” or “Would” , or just the simple past. k. 2 types for the imperfect for –ar and –ir/-er

vi. –AR
1. Yo – manejaba
2. Tu – manejabas
3. El- manejaba
4. Nos- Manejabamos
5. Ellos- Manejaban
vii. –ER/-IR
6. yo –comia
7. tu- comias
8. El- comia
9. Nos- comiamos
10. Ellos- comian
l. Only 3 verbs are irregular in the imperfect
viii. Ir- iba, ibas, iba, ibamos, iban
ix. Ser- era , eras, era, eramos, eran
x. Ver – Veia, veias, veia, veiamos, veian
4. Describing the Past: The imperfect and Preterite of “state” verbs m. Imperfect
xi. Sabia ( I knew) conocia (I was aquainted with) tenia (I had) queria (I wanted) Podia (I was able, could) n. Preterite
xii. Supe (I found out) Conoci (I met) Tuve (I had) Quise (I wanted) Pude (I could) o. The verbs Ser and Estar are usually used in the imperfect. They are used in the preterite only when the state has explicitly come to an end within a specified amount of time xiii. Infinitive = ser

11. Imperfect= era /was
12. Preterite= Fui /was
xiv. Infintive =estar
13. Imperfect= estaba/ was
14. Preterite= Estuve/was
5. Saying what you were going to do: The imperfect of ir+a +infinitve p. The imperfect of ir (iba, ibas, iba, ibamos, iban) can be used in the construction to express past intentions xv. Ex= ibamos a esquiar el jueves, pero….

xvi. Ex= Ruben y Virgina iban a pasar el dia en el parquet, pero… Capitulo 8
1. Personal and Impersonal Direct Object Pronouns : lo, la, los, and las a. Ex: Lo compro Raul “Raul bought it”
b. Ex: La trajo Nora “Nora bought it”
2. More about expressing likes : the verbs gustar and encantar c. Gustar can be followed by a noun. If the noun is singular, use the singular form, gusta; if it is plural, use the plural form, gustan i. The preterite forms are gusto...
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