Spanish an Essential Grammar

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Spanish
An Essential Grammar

Spanish: An Essential Grammar is a concise and user-friendly reference guide to the most important aspects of Spanish. It presents a fresh and accessible description of the language as it is spoken both in Europe and Latin America. The book sets out the complexities of Spanish in short, readable sections, and explanations are clear and free from jargon. The Grammar is the ideal reference source for the learner and user of Spanish. It is suitable for either independent study or for students in schools, colleges, universities and adult classes of all types. Features include: • • • • Clear distinctions between the essential and basic aspects of Spanish grammar and those that are more complex Full use of authentic examples Simple explanations of areas that customarily pose problems for English speakers Detailed contents list and index for easy access to information

Peter T. Bradley is Emeritus Professor of Latin American History and Ian Mackenzie is Senior Lecturer in Spanish, both at Newcastle University.

Routledge Essential Grammars Essential Grammars are available for the following languages: Chinese Danish Dutch English Finnish Greek Hungarian Modern Hebrew Norwegian Polish Portuguese Spanish Swedish Thai Urdu Other titles of related interest published by Routledge: Modern Spanish Grammar: A Practical Guide, Second Edition By Juan Kattán-Ibarra and Christopher J. Pountain Modern Spanish Grammar Workbook, Second Edition By Juan Kattán-Ibarra and Irene Wilkie Colloquial Spanish By Untza Otaola Alday Colloquial Spanish 2 By Untza Otaola Alday

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Spanish
An Essential Grammar

Peter T. Bradley and Ian Mackenzie

First published 2004 by Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2004. © 2004 Peter T. Bradley and Ian Mackenzie All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Bradley, Peter T., 1943– Spanish: an essential grammar/Peter T. Bradley and Ian Mackenzie. p. cm. – (Routledge Essential grammars) Includes index. 1. Spanish language–Grammar. I. Mackenzie, I.E., 1965– II. Title. III. Series: Essential grammar. PC4112.B63 2004 2003020645 468.2′421–dc22 ISBN 0-203-49729-5 Master e-book ISBN

ISBN 0-203-57133-9 (Adobe eReader Format) ISBN 0–415–28642–5 (hbk) ISBN 0–415–28643–3 (pbk)

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Contents

Preface Acknowledgement Symbols Chapter 1 The alphabet, pronunciation, stress, spelling and punctuation 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 The alphabet Pronunciation Stress and written accents Spelling – capital letters Punctuation

xiii xv xvi

1
1 2 6 9 11

Chapter 2
2.1 2.2 2.3

Nouns
Plural forms of nouns Gender Collective nouns and agreement

13
13 18 26

Chapter 3 Definite and indefinite articles
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Forms of the articles The definite article The indefinite article The neuter article lo...
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