1. What is the difference between “typical” and “normal?” * Normal distribution coincides with the bell curve, Majority in the middle average * Typical describes what it considered customary or expected, considered normal but they are not truly synonymous
2. What is the difference between formal and informal tests? Standardized and criterion referenced? Behavioral and objective or instrumental? Standardized testing compares patients performance to that of peers; same test given in some manner to allow all test takers reliable comparison. Norms can be established, individual performance compared.
* Criterion References testing measures an individual’s performance with respect to an expected criteria or established norm * Behavioral testing relies on patient behavioral response or active cooperation or participation. * Objective/Instrumental testing involves the use of equipment to provide information that is not reliant on a behavioral response from the patient.
3. Describe at least 5 essential steps or components of the assessment process (there are approximately 8 of them) Case History
Consolidation of findings
4. What is “sampling” with respect to assessment? Why is this Dr. Hahn’s preferred method? Sampling with respect to assessment is when what the patient says is transcribed and analyzed. Speech sample is transcribed phonetically so that pronunciation can be analyzed for impairment or language sample is transcribed verbatim in order to analyze for syntax, semantics, morphology and pragmatics.
5. Be able to define or at least recognize the definition of the following: * Articulation- Refers to speech sound production
* Speech- Vocalized form of human communication.
* Fluency- refers to the forward flow of speech
* Optimum and habitual pitch
* MLU - (Mean Length of Utterance)- measure of linguistic productivity in children * Apraxia- motor speech disorder, motor signals from brain to articulation “short circuit” and cause incorrect movements, resulting in incorrect sound production * Dysarthria- motor speech disorder resulting from neurological injury of the motor component of the motor-speech system. * Semantics- the study of meaning, relationships between words, phrases, signs and symbols * Pragmatics- studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning * Morphology- the identification, analysis and description of the structure of a given language’s morphemes and other linguistic units such as words, affixes, parts of speech, intonation/stress or implied context * Syntax- the study of the principles and processes by which sentences are constructed in particular languages * Phonology- describes the rule of a language that pertain to speech sound production
6. What are the language rules of thumb regarding MLU and age? 3 years old- shows more adult like sentence structure (3-3.3 MLU) 4 years old- MLU is 3.6-4.7 morphemes
5 years old- MLU typically exceeds 5.0 morphemes and child has acquired 70-80% of adult syntax
7. What are the speech rules of thumb relative to sound acquisition and age? 1 year- one word utterances
2 years- two word utterances
3 years- mostly 3-4 word utterances
4 years- most utterances will be 4-5 or more words in length 7 years- Adolescence- essentially adult like language
8. What is the “traditional” or Van Riper approach to articulation therapy? 4 Steps
(1) identifying the standard sound,
(2) discriminating it from its error through contrasting and comparing, (3) varying and correcting the various productions until it is produced correctly, (4) strengthening and stabilizing it in all contexts and speaking situations
9. What aspects of voice are usually assessed?
Optimum or habitual pitch
10. What is a...
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