Sos101 Unit 2 Exam 2

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**List the more common ecological consequences to pollution in our oceans

**Define sustainable yield
**Define Exclusive Economic Zone
**List the benefits and drawbacks of aquaculture
**Define and explain the causes of eutrophication, red tides  **List the main causes of ocean pollution
**Define by-catch
**Define precautionary principle
**List the major consequences of global climate change on our ocean ecosystems **List the main ways we use global sea catch

Ted talks:
How I fell in love with fish
15 to 1 / 2.5 to 1 feed chicken to fish. German fish marshland doesn’t feed animals self-renewing 600,000 birds 250 species we farm extensively not intensively farm has no impurities create clean water into ocean 1 billion people will go hungry today feeding more people more cheaply business in liquidation eroding ecological capital

Following the mercury trail
Ocean health and human well being momma aint happy aint nobody happy if the ocean aint happy aint nobody happy cannery row fumes from scum floating on the water led based paints black smell money pinch a minnow hurt a whale ecologist looks at an ocean pollutants in the sea PCBs cant be broken down passed into plankton onto whales ex. Dolphins accumulate PCBs metals then transfer to offspring death rate 60 – 80% toxins get into one other predator whale meat molecular lab in hotel room illegal whale meat some are dolphin meat blubber liver huge load was passing into people high level of DDT seal and whale leads to very high pollutant levels in Inuit people sewage and farm fertilizers create blooms of bacteria and algae blooms of bacteria and viruses harmful algal blooms ASP CFP DSP NSP PSP cholera can be spread by copepods inch long how to fix problems Julia platt mayor 74 years old 1931 community based marine protected area david Packard moneray bay aquarium protect ocean pyramid

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Seven-tenths 7/10 is covered with seas.
Ocean ecosystems are continuous or rather the single ecosystem of a work ocean with land masses as the true barriers though gradients of temperature and salinity separate the oceans into a series of discrete regions. Flywheel effect: a powerful buffer for what would otherwise be drastic fluctuations in our weather. Oceans serve as great reservoir of dissolved gases, which helps to regulate the composition of the air we breathe. Fed by sediments washed off the land, the shelves are often very fertile and support abundant fisheries. Ocean gradients 4-10 times steeper that reach as far as 500 meters which drop to nearly 3,000 metres or more until they meet the “foothills” of the abyssal floor; deepest is 11,000 metres. The ocean is a single dynamic medium, its waters constantly on the move under the influence of the sun’s heat (provides initial thrust) Major currents “travelators” deliver huge masses of water over long distances Peru current and Benguela current South Africa produce marine bonanzas bring in nutrient rich waters dragged to the surface by offshore winds- plankton, fish, and seabirds The “sea” hemisphere is almost all water – over 90% even “land” hemisphere is still 50% water

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Ocean is where life began. Phytoplankton (greek meaning “drifting plants”) The great barrier reef of northeastern Australia harbours 400 types of coral, 1,500 species of fish and 4,000 species of mollusc Deep ocean: pitch-dark, near freezing 2,000 species of fish. Many invertebrates many of them grotesque and primitive in form Phytoplankton produces 20 bullion tones of new growth each year and account for half of net photosynthesis in the biosphere “primary producers” they make up base of the marine food chain when they die absorbed carbon falls with them to the bottom of the sea and remains as a marine sediment they absorb large amounts of CO2 from atmosphere three billion tones is taken up by phytoplankton

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Phytoplankton and sea plants are the primary producers of the oceans mangroves well over 20 times...
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