A study of municipal solid waste management system adopted by various municipalities
Prof. Dr. Dev Raj Adhikari
Faculty of Management
Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur
Laxman Raj Kandel
Master of Philosophy in Management
Table of Contents
Waste is a resource that is unutilized or a resource not in right condition. Vegetables that we buy are converted into food. In this process, some part of the vegetables are cooked whereas some are thrown, the thrown part is waste. When we eat those vegetables, our body consumes the needed food and converts it into different types of body cells. In this process too, some food is converted into waste and the body excretes it. After passage of time the body itself dies and is converted into waste. In this manner we can observe that waste is a phase-wise by-product. Proper utilization of waste requires different methods at different levels because after each level, waste changes its form.
Solid wastes are the wastes that are not in liquid form and have no value to the person who is responsible for it . Solid waste is any byproduct of human activities which tends to increase with rapid urbanization, improved living standards and changing consumption pattern . Synonyms for solid waste can be garbage, trash, rubbish etc. The term municipal solid waste refers to wastes from houses, streets and public places, shops, offices and hospitals, which are very often the responsibility of municipal or other government authorities . These solid wastes have become recurring features in our urban environment .
This research is going to focus on the waste produced by households of the Kathmandu valley and other wastes like industrial waste shall lie outside the boundary of this research.A more sustainable waste management system is a system that contributes to increasing efficiency in the use of natural resources, and to decreasing environmental burdens.
Solid waste management is therefore a critical component within urban sanitation and it is also one of the most important and resource intensive services provided by municipalities….. Effective solid waste management is more than just cleaning the streets or collecting waste and dumping of the collected waste, as practiced by most municipalities. It requires efficient combination of various components of solid waste management in an integrated manner. Integrated solid waste management is therefore a process of optimizing the waste management system as a whole with application of a variety of suitable technologies .
There are various stages in solid waste management. They are:
Prevention and Reduction: This is considered to be the first and the most effective manner. This does not solve the entire problem but helps in reducing the burden to the authority responsible for the respective management. Three main waste categories were determined: organic wastes, paper and plastics. In this stage, households work towards reducing the waste.Reuse: This step includes using the waste again. This process needs some basic cleaning and repairing activities.
Reuse and Recycling: Recycling requires a scientific treatment process and usually is more costly that reusing. After multiple reuse (in some cases, even ;after first use) wastes have to go through scientific process to turn it into usable resource.As, the play a critical role in waste recycle and reuse process, even the rag pickersneed to be taught discipline, punctuality and regularity, and have to be given health education and monetary help .
Treatment and Disposal: This is the last stage in each cycle of waste management. Many times, the resources are not usable with the available technology and have to be dumped off. This has to be done in a safe place...