Solid Waste Management

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A study of municipal solid waste management system adopted by various municipalities

Presented to:
Prof. Dr. Dev Raj Adhikari
Faculty of Management
Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur

Prepared by:
Laxman Raj Kandel
Kishore Dhungana
Nischal Thapa
Master of Philosophy in Management

August, 2013
Tribhuvan University
Kirtipur, Kathmandu

Table of Contents



Waste is a resource that is unutilized or a resource not in right condition. Vegetables that we buy are converted into food. In this process, some part of the vegetables are cooked whereas some are thrown, the thrown part is waste. When we eat those vegetables, our body consumes the needed food and converts it into different types of body cells. In this process too, some food is converted into waste and the body excretes it. After passage of time the body itself dies and is converted into waste. In this manner we can observe that waste is a phase-wise by-product. Proper utilization of waste requires different methods at different levels because after each level, waste changes its form.

Solid wastes are the wastes that are not in liquid form and have no value to the person who is responsible for it . Solid waste is any byproduct of human activities which tends to increase with rapid urbanization, improved living standards and changing consumption pattern . Synonyms for solid waste can be garbage, trash, rubbish etc. The term municipal solid waste refers to wastes from houses, streets and public places, shops, offices and hospitals, which are very often the responsibility of municipal or other government authorities . These solid wastes have become recurring features in our urban environment .

This research is going to focus on the waste produced by households of the Kathmandu valley and other wastes like industrial waste shall lie outside the boundary of this research.A more...
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