Describe the basic functions of living organisms.
A. Responsiveness – organisms respond to changes in their immediate environment (long term changes is adaptability)
B. Growth – over a lifetime, organisms grow larger through an increase in size or number of cells. Differentiation is when cells have specialized functions
C. Reproduction – Organisms reproduce, creating subsequent generations of similar organisms
D. Movement – Organisms are capable of movement
a. Internal – moving food, blood, or other materials internally b. External – moving through environment
E. Metabolism – Organisms rely on complex chemical reactions to provide the energy for responsiveness, growth, reproduction and movement. Refers to all chemical operations under way in the body.
Define Anatomy and physiology, and describe the various specialties within each discipline
Anatomy – the study of internal and external structures and the physical relationship between body parts.
Physiology – the study of how living organisms p0erform the vital functions.
Microscopic Anatomy – study of structures that can not be seen by the naked eye.
Cytology – analyzes the internal structure of individual cells.
Histology – the study of tissues
Gross Anatomy – considers features visible with the unaided eye.
Surface Anatomy – refers to the study of general form and superficial markings.
Regional anatomy – considers all of the superficial and internal features in a specific region of the body.
Systemic Anatomy – considers structures of the major organ systems.
Human Physiology – study of functions of human body
Cell Physiology – study of functions of living cells
Special Physiology – study of the physiology of specific organs
System Physiology – considers all aspects of the function of specific organ systems
Pathological physiology (Pathology) – studies the effects of disease on organ or syst4m functions
Identify the major levels of organization in living organisms.
B. Cellular level
C. Tissue level
D. Organ level
E. Organ system level
F. Organism level
Identify the organ systems of the body and the major components of each system.
1. Integumentary system:
* Cutaneous membrane (layers of skin)
* Hair follicles
* Sebaceous glands
* Sweat glands
* Sensory Receptors
2. Skeletal System:
* Bones (s06), Cartilages, ligaments
* Axial skeleton – skull, vertebrae, sacrum, rib s, sternum * Appendicular skeleton – limbs and supporting bones
* Bone Marrow
3. Muscular System:
* skeletal muscles (700)
* axial muscles
* appendicular muscles
4. Nervous system
* Spinal cord
* Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) – links CNS with other systems and with sense organs 5. Endocrine System:
* Pineal gland
* Pituitary gland
* Thyroid gland
* Parathyroid gland
* Adrenal gland
* Gonads (testes and ovaries)
6. Cardio Vascular system:
* Blood vessels – arteries, capillaries, and veins
7. Lymphatic system:
* Lymphatic vessels
* Lymph nodes
8. Respiratory System:
* Nasal Cavities and Sinuses
* Lungs – aveoli
9. Digestive System:
* Salivary glands
* Small intestine
* Gall bladder
* Large intestine
10. Urinary System:
* Urinary bladder
11. Reproductive System:
* Accessory organs –Epididemus, Ductus Defferens, Seminal vesicles, prostrate gland, urethra * External genitalia – penis, scrotum