Emile Durkheim saw society as a system "beyond us" with the power to guide our lives. Therefore, he described elements of society, including cultural norms, values, and beliefs as: a. false consciousness. b. ideal types. c. social facts. d. forms of rationality. C. Wright Mills claimed that the "sociological imagination" transformed: a. scientific research into common sense. b. personal problems into public issues. c. people into supporters of the status quo. d. common sense into laws of society. Sociologists use the term “social marginality” to refer to: a. people who have little understanding of sociology b. people who are especially sensitive about their family background. c. being defined by others as an “outsider.” d. having special social skills. A symbolic-interaction analysis focuses not on how individuals perceive a social setting but how what happens in that setting involves social inequality. a.True b.False With regard to the process of measurement, which of the following statements is true? a. Consistency does not guarantee validity. b. For measurement to be reliable, it must be valid. c. For measurement to be valid, it must be reliable. d. All measurement is both reliable and valid. Because there is more social isolation in rural areas of Canada than in urban areas, we would expect suicide rates to be: a. high in both urban and rural areas. b. higher in rural areas. c. higher in urban areas. d. low in both urban and rural areas. What is the term for the beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that together make up a people’s way of life? a. society b. culture c. social structure d. social system Which of the following concepts was used by Durkheim to name a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals? a. division of labor b. anomie c. false consciousness d. alienation
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9. Formal organizations are: a. small groups with elected leaders. b. large secondary groups with a goal orientation. c. only agencies that are part of the government. d. networks that have many members. Subculture refers to: a. people who embrace high culture. b. cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society’s population. c. people who embrace popular culture. d. a part of the population lacking culture. Ethnocentrism refers to: a. people taking pride in their ethnicity. b. judging another culture using the standards of your own culture. c. claiming that another culture is better than your own. d. understanding another culture using its own standards and values. Cars, computers, and iPhones are all examples of which of the following? a. norms. b. high culture. c. material culture. d. nonmaterial culture. _____ is a way of understanding the world based on science. a. Free will b. Theology c. Positivism d. Metaphysics
14. The ideal of objectivity means that a researcher: a. must carry out research that will encourage desirable social change. b. must try to adopt a stance of personal neutrality toward the outcome of the research. c. must study issues that have no value to society as a whole. d. must not care personally about the topic being studied. 15. Which of the following historical changes is among the factors that stimulated the development of sociology as a discipline? a. a belief that our futures are defined by "fate" b. the founding of the Roman Catholic Church c. the power of tradition d. the rise of industrial factories and cities Which of the following is a way in which people can mislead others with statistics? a. People select the data they present. b. People interpret the data to lead their readers to a desired conclusion. c. People use graphs to "spin" the truth. d. All of the above are correct.
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17. Which of the following best describes the focus of the structural-functional approach?...