Introduction to Sociology Study Guide for Exam 2
Be sure you have a good understanding of functionalism, conflict theory and symbolic interaction and how they apply to the different topics we have discussed.
1) Know the differences between sex, gender, sexual orientation and gender identity as well as the different sexual orientations and gender identities. Sex (Biology) - The biological characteristics with which we are born. Gender (Society) - Learned attitudes and behaviors that characterize people of one sex or the other. Sexual Orientation- A person’s romantic and emotional attraction to another person. Heterosexuality- attraction to another sex
Homosexuality- attraction to same sex
Bisexual- attraction to both sexes
Asexual- no sexual attraction
Gender Identity- Perception of your gender.
2) Know sociological perspectives on abortion, rape, pornography and prostitution. Abortion- The expulsion of an embryo of fetus from uterus.
55% of Americans support abortions, but with some limits.
20% believe it should be illegal in all circumstances.
24% believe it should always be legal.
Abortion rates remain controversial.
Rape (penetration without consent)
Pornography- The graphic depiction of images that causes sexual arousal. Prostitution- Selling sex for money.
3) Know stigma and the types of labeling.
Stigma- (Changes how you see someone.) According to Goffman, a stigma is a powerfully negative social label that radically changes a person’s self-concept and social identity, operating as a master status. Degredation Ceremony- Formal application of stigma
Retrospective Labeling- (in the past) looking back on past; re-processing the stigmatized person’s past behavior based on their stigma. Projective Labeling- (the future) looking into the future; assuming the stigmatized person will continue to perform deviant acts in the future.
4) Know the difference between deviance and crime and about medicalization of deviance. Deviance- Is behavior that violates expected rules or norms. Crime- Is a violation of societal norms and rules written into public laws. Medicalization of Deviance- Transformation of moral and legal issues into a medical conditions Affects who responds
Affects how people respond
Affects ideas of personal compentance
5) Understand the facets of Hirschi’s control theory, Durkheim’s concept of anomie, Merton’s strain theory and Sutherland’s differential association. Hirschi’s Control Theory- Social control depends on imagining the consequences of one’s behavior.
Morton’s Strain Theory- Strain theory suggests that people engage in deviance when there is a conflict between goals and means. Sutherland’s Differential Association theory- Links deviance to how much others encourage or discourage such behavior.
6) Understand how the reasons for punishment differ as well as the types of crime. Crime
White Collar Crime- Illegal activities committed by high status people in the course of their occupation. Occupational Crimes- Individuals in the course of their work. Corporate Crimes- Executive to benefit themselves and their companies. Cyber Crime- Conducted online
Retribution- An act of morale vengeance by which society makes offenders suffer as much as the suffering caused by the crime. Deterrence (swift, severe, certain) - The attempt to discourage criminality through the use of punishment. Rehabilitation (punish people in order to fix them) - A program for reforming the offender to prevent later offenses. Social Protection (protected society) – Rendering an offender incapable of further offenses temporarily through imprisonment. 7) Understand both social stratification in the US and global stratification. Social Stratification (How we rank people) - A hierarchial ranking of people who have different access to valued resources. Global Stratification- Patterns of social inequality in the world as a whole. 8) Know how the concept of socioeconomic status works....
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