4.Structural Function Theory of Socialization :
* Socialization is one of the primary means by which culture including knowledge is passed from one generation to the next * Occurs not only in primary/secondary schools and professional schools, but even among counter cultures and subcultures engaging in illicit activity. 4.Conflict View of Socialization: Passing on advantage:
* Socialization is the means by which the rich and powerful pass on their advantages to their children * Passing on advantage through institutions beyond family * Socialization experiences tend to both justify and reproduce the status quo. 4.Social Channeling/Tracking:
* Social channeling is a process of socialization in which children of rich are prepared for and directed towards positions of privilege in society while children of the poor are prepared for and directed into low prestige positions of subservience * Tracking= separating pupils into groups by academic abilty * Schafer, Olexa and Polk (1970) study of tracking studied one middle class and one working class high school. * Both had college prep track and gen track
* Blacks and students from blue collar fam less likely to be assigned to track. * Effects IQ, Past performance, Social class background. * Self-image - students stigmatized, embarrassed, disheartened, and lost faith in themselves. * “. . . you lose—something in you—just like it goes out of you. . . . I started losing faith in myself. . . .” * a student subculture that placed little value on academic performance and rewarded antagonistic and disruptive behavior * teachers expected less, attempted less challenging lessons, gave lower grades in the belief that those students did not deserve the same grades as the college-prep students. *
4. Mead’s four-stage development process for childhood socialization including concept of “generalized other”
* 1.Prepatory stage- first stage of childs social development where behavior is largely imitation of others with little use for symbols and limited role-taking. * 2. Play stage- here individuals learn to evaluate themselves and other social objects from the point of view of particular siginificant others, individuals with whom they are interacting with such as mother or father. * 3. Game stage- here children learn to take the role of multiple others at the same time ex. Several people playing a game. * 4. Adult stage—final stage which individual is capable of taking on role of generalized other, assessing behavior in terms of the norms and values of broad society and responding to abstract principles and symbols.
4. Gender-role socialization and “borderwork”
* elementary schools are place where children learn some of their most-lasting lessons about gender and gender differences * children must claim their own gender identity and resist labels like “sissy/tomby” * gender is used to sort children into activities
* bordwork refers to interactions between genders that strengthen and perpetuate gender boundries * activities often lead to same-gender temas
* contests between same sexes, chasing, invasions, rituals of pollution “cooties” 4. Formal and Informal socialization
* Formal= socialization occurring in settings intentionally designed for socialization * Workplace: newcomers first hired by an orginizaiton must quickly learn to organize and make sense of how things are done, provide experiences in form of training or orientation session for newcomers. * Informal= socialization in which peers and more experienced members train newcomers as they carry out their roles. * Workplace: in which peers and more experienced members train newcomers as they carry out role, taught how really “should be done” 4. Agents of socialization:
* Early socialization – important b/c children are impressionable * Differential...