Sociology Exam #2 Study Guide

Topics: Sociology, Social class, Working class Pages: 15 (3505 words) Published: October 22, 2013
Exam #2 Study Review

Chapter 4

social interaction • The process by which we act and react to those around us.

microsociology • The study of human behavior in contexts of face-to-face interaction.

civil inattention • The process whereby individuals in the same physical setting demonstrate to one another that they are aware of each other’s presence.

impression management • Preparing for the presentation of one’s social role.

social position • The social identity an individual has in a given group or society. Social positions may be general in nature (those associated with gender roles) or may be more specific (occupational positions).

status • The social honor or prestige that a particular group is accorded by other members of a society. Status groups normally display distinct styles of life— patterns of behavior that the members of a group follow. Status privilege may be positive or negative. Pariah status groups are regarded with disdain or treated as outcasts by the majority of the population.

social role • Socially defined expectations of an individual in a given status, or occupying a particular social position. In every society, individuals play a number of social roles, such as teenager, parent, worker, or political leader.

impression management • Preparing for the presentation of one’s social role.

Erving Goffman was a highly influential sociologist who created a new field of study called microsociology, or social interaction. Goffman believed that sociologists needed to concern themselves with seemingly trivial aspects of everyday social behavior. Goffman argued that the study of such apparently insignificant forms of social interaction is of major importance in sociology and, far from being uninteresting, is one of the most absorbing of all areas of sociological investigation.

Types of Interaction:

unfocused interaction • Interaction occurring among people present in a particular setting but not engaged in direct face-to-face communication.

focused interaction • Interaction between individuals engaged in a common activity or in direct conversation with one another.

ethnomethodology • The study of how people make sense of what others say and do in the course of day-to-day social interaction. Ethnomethodology is concerned with the “ethnomethods” by which people sustain meaningful exchanges with one another.

conversation analysis • The empirical study of conversations, employing techniques drawn from ethnomethodology. Conversation analysis examines details of naturally occurring conversations to reveal the organizational principles of talk and its role in the production and reproduction of social order.

interactional vandalism • The deliberate subversion of the tacit rules of conversation.

response cries • Seemingly involuntary exclamations individuals make when, for example, being taken by surprise, dropping something inadvertently, or expressing pleasure.

personal space • The physical space individuals maintain between themselves and others.

regionalization • The division of social life into different regional settings or zones.

compulsion of proximity • People’s need to interact with others in their presence.

Chapter 5

social group • A collection of people who regularly interact with one another on the basis of shared expectations concerning behavior and who share a sense of common identity.

social aggregate • A collection of people who happen to be together in a particular place but do not significantly interact or identify with one another.

social category • People who share a common characteristic (such as gender or occupation) but do not necessarily interact or identify with one another

in-group • A group toward which one feels particular loyalty and respect—the group to which “we” belong.

out-group • A group toward which one feels antagonism and contempt—“those people.”

primary group • A group that is characterized by intense...
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