Sociology Exam

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2. You ask your academic advisor what to major in, as you can’t seem to decide. She suggests psychology; however, it is important to remember that this answer likely reflects her:
Correct answer: Values.
(Page 9) Social psychologists’ values penetrate their work in obvious ways, such as their choice of research topics and the types of people who are attracted to various fields of study. 3. When asked who you think will win the next presidential election, you reply that you do not know. However, after the election results are reported, you claim that it was obvious all along. This is an example of the:

Correct answer: Hindsight bias.
6. Ann Landers’ 1984 survey of women readers’ opinions about romantic affection and sex was probably:
Correct answer: Flawed because it was not representative of the population. 8. An experimenter exposed participants to different room temperatures to determine their effects on aggression. The room temperatures were the:

Correct answer: Independent variable.
(Page 16) Social psychologists experiment by constructing social situations that simulate important features of our daily lives. By varying just one or two factors at a time- called independent variables- the experimenter pinpoints their influence. An experiment enables the social psychologist to discover principles of social thinking, social influence, and social relations. Independent variable is the experimental factor that is researcher manipulates. 13. You prefer that professors post exam scores (by identification number), rather than returning them individually. It makes you feel better to see how you did in comparison to other students. This is an example of what social psychology phenomenon?

Correct answer: Social comparison
(Page 28) One way is through social comparisons. Others around us help to define the standard by which we define ourselves as rich or poor, smart or dumb, tall or short: We compare ourselves with them and consider if they attend a high school with most average students and how that self-concept can be threatened after graduation when a student who excelled in an average high school goes onto an academically selective university. The “big fish” is no longer in a small pond. 16. Education and persuasion tend to change what type of attitudes?

Correct answer: Explicit.
(Page 35) Verbalized explicit attitudes may change with education and persuasion; implicit attitudes change slowly with practice that forms new habits.

17. Practice that forms new habits, albeit slowly, tends to change what type of attitudes?
Correct answer: Implicit.
(Page 35) Although explicit attitudes may change with relative ease, notes Wilson, “implicit attitudes, like old habits, change more slowly.” With repeated practice, however, new habitual attitudes can replace old ones. 19. Barbara was really shocked when her candidate was not elected. She had assumed that everyone felt as she did and supported her candidate’s ideas. This is an example of the:

Correct answer: False consensus effect.
(Page 45) We have a curious tendency to enhance our self-images by overestimating or underestimating the extent to which other think and act as we do. On matters of opinion, we find support for our positions by overestimating the extent to which other agree- a phenomenon called the false consensus effect. 21. The truth concerning self-efficacy encourages us not to resign ourselves to bad situations. If we persist despite initial failures:

Correct answer: Effort and fewer self-doubts will help us succeed. (Page 40) Stanford psychologist Albert Bandura captured the power of positive thinking in his research and theorizing about self-efficacy. Believing in our own competence and effectiveness pays dividends. Children and adults with strong feelings of self-efficacy are more persistent, less anxious, and less depressed. They also live healthier lives and are more academically successful. 23. Sometimes the basis for one’s...
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