Study Guide for Exam 1
Intro to Sociology
Bring # 2 Pencil
Readings: Chapter 1
Article: New York: Plan to Close Prisons Stirs Anxiety in Towns That Depend on Them
Sociological Imagination (C. Wright Mills)- An awareness of the relationship between an individual & the wider society; key element to sociological imagination is the ability to view one’s society as an outsider would. **Society influences: culture, gender identity, religion & social class.
August Comte- (1798-1857) French philosopher during the Enlightenment; “father of Sociology”. Systematic investigation of behavior needed to improve society, (Sociology). Favored Positivism- a way of understanding based on science: research methods & statistics. **Asked: “What holds society together?” (Structure) & “Why is there change in society?” (Social dynamic/process)
Emile Durkheim- (1858-1957) French. Behavior must be understood within larger social context. Goal was to recognize sociology as an academic discipline in Universities. Anomie: loss of direction felt in society when social control of individual becomes ineffective. No structure. Eg: Crime Suicide- major theme for Durkheim. Studied suicide rates & discovered social factors that contribute to suicide. Key factor in suicide is social integration- the degree to which ppl are tied to their social groups ** Those w/ weaker ties are most likely to commit suicide. Society has an influence on social structure Egoistic suicide- so connected to status that when status is pulled from them, they commit suicide. Altruistic suicide- sacrificing yourself for others
Karl Marx- (1818-1883) Revolutionary beliefs, Marxism. Stated that the engine of human history is class conflict. Strong conflict between the Bourgeoisie (those who owned property) & Proletariat (working class who were exploited). Working class should overthrow existing class system. Felt that the struggle between the classes would end only when the Proletariat revolted causing a classless society. Revolution did not happen because of: development of industry changed the economy, raised the standard of living, and creation of unions.
Max Weber- (1864-1920) to comprehend behavior, one must learn subjective (looking at a situation from a person’s perspective) meaning people attach to actions. Verstehen: understanding; insight. Empathy
Ideal Type: construct for evaluating specific cases
**Did not believe economics was the force of social change. Religion is key, found that Protestant beliefs led to growth of capitalism.
Protestant Ethic: belief that working hard would please god. Harriet Martineau- (1802-1876) regarded as the first woman sociologist. In 1853 Martineau translated the work of Auguste Comte from French to English. Advocated against slavery, argued for workers rights & fought for changes in education policies against women. Feminism: equality between men & women in politics, pay & education.
WEB Du Bois- (1868-1963) first AA to earn a doctorate at Harvard. Helped found NAACP. Wrote “The souls of Blacked folks”- Ethnographer. Died in Ghana in 1963. Double Consciousness: division of an individual’s identity into 2 or more social realities
Functional Perspective- emphasizes the way parts of a society are structured to maintain it’s stability. Relatively stable patterns of social behavior (Eg: law, gov’t), each social structure has social functions. Manifest Functions: institution are open, stated conscious functions that involve intended & recognized consequences of an aspect of society. Eg: NYPD- Law enforcement; Serve & protect Latent functions: unconscious or unintended function that may reflect hidden purposes of an institution. Hidden agenda Social Dysfunction: elements or processes of society that may disrupt the social system or its stability
Social Conflict Perspective-Assume social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups. Sees...
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