October 17, 2011
The Myth of Race
* Race can be defined as a group of people who share a set of characteristics – usually physical ones – that share a common bloodline * Race is a sociological category based off of supposed biological differences * Racism is a belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal human traits. * Race is a social construct that changes over time and across different contexts * Humans regardless of their race are 99% genetically identical, however race is still used to classify people and sometimes race is a basis for treatment of individuals. Racism Today
* People argue is it no longer a problem today – it changed but it is not eliminated * No longer okay to display racist attitudes
The Concept of Race (early)
* People use DNA to determine racial make up, but nothing is there * Many historical efforts to explain race were bias due to ethnocentrism (judgment based on own values) * A number of scientists and thinkers researched and attempted to explain racial differences * Backers of Eugenics (science of genetic lines and the inheritable traits they pass on from generation to generation) claimed that traits could be traced through blood lines and bred into populations (for positive traits) or taken out of blood lines (for negative traits) The Concept of Race (today)
* The one-drop rule, which evolved from US laws forbidding miscegenation (interracial marriage) was the belief that one-drop of black blood makes a person black. Application of this rule kept the white population “pure” and lumped anyone with black blood in one category. * Rule was critical in the supreme court case Plessy v. Ferguson, which upheld the Jim crow laws * Miscegenation is the technical term for a multicultural marriage * Illegal throughout some states in the US until 1967, in Loving v. Virginia Radical Realities
* Racialization – formation of a new racial identity in which new ideological boundaries of differences are drawn around a formally unnoticed group of people. * Recent racialization = muslins after 9/11
* Not all Muslims are terrorists even though we had that opinion after the terrorist attack Race vs. Ethnicity
* Race – externally imposed, involuntary, physical difference, hierarchal, exclusive, unequal * Ethnicity (nationality) – voluntary, self defined, non hierarchal, fluid and multiple, cultural, identify with a past nationality * Symbolic ethnicity – Irish, don’t visit or anything but they celebrate St. Patrick’s day * A nationality not the sense of carrying out the rights and duties of citizenship but identify with a past or future nationality.
October 19, 2011
* Pluralism in context of race and ethnicity, refers to the presence and engaged coexistence of numerous distinct groups in one society, with no one group being the majority * Pluralism not only permits racial and ethnic variation within one society it actually encourages people to embrace diversity “salad bowl” Studying Race and Whiteness Today
* Peggy Melntosn regards it as a “invisible knapsack or privileges” * Ex: TV commercials, not needing to be aware of systematic racism, not having to prove that your smart * Whiteness is not a feeling of representing an entire population with ones successes and failures. It’s about not having to think about Race as much at all. Social Consequences of Race
* Segregation is the legal or social practice of separating people on the basis of their race or ethnicity * Segregation was official policy in the US until the 1960’s * Despite being illegal for over forty years, there is still ample evidence of segregation in American Society today, particularly in schools, housing and prisons Group Responses to Domination
* Four ways that groups respond to racial oppression are withdrawal,...