Chapter Five, “The Problem of Population Growth”
What is the basic argument of the Malthusians? What kinds of evidence fail to support their argument?
The Malthusian perspective is that as the population increased so did the demand for resources such as food and with that came the prices of items going up since it was in such great demand and Malthus also said that there was no way that disaster could occur. What he failed to see was that as population increased the agricultural techniques would result in constant increasing food production, but that was the case.
Why isn’t it straightforward to identify the Earth’s “carrying capacity”?
The reason why it is hard to identify Earth’s carrying capacity is because our capacity for culture and symbolic thought enables us to constantly change and alter our diets and the way we exploit the environment for food.
What, according to Robbins, is the ideology of Malthusian concerns?
The ideology of Malthusian concerns is question why the poor existed and what their purpose was, and that poverty existed due to over population because people did not want to change their ways.
What is “demographic transition theory,” and what, according to Robbins, do its theorists regard as an answer to high population growth in poor countries? What, according to Robbins, is wrong about demographic transition theory?
The demographic transition theory is that the world population growth increased only very slowly from human beginnings to around 1750, and this was maintained due to high death rates. And in poor countries people fail to use birth control methods in order to control the population growth.
How and why did the economic expansion of the world capitalist economy changed reproductive behaviors?
It is determined by a number of factors which include the period of fertility and the cultural and society.
What is “wealth flows theory”? How does it explain why the demand for children in poor countries remains high, and the circumstances under which such demand declines?
The wealth flows theory says that there are only two decisions that can be made by families and they are to have no economic gain to restricting fertility or to have economic gain. This means that a family see children as assets and they would either make a family money or make them suffer economically.
What problems might emerge or increase in poor countries if they become more oriented to the nuclear family structure?
Chapter Six, “Hunger, Poverty, and Economic Development”
Is world hunger the result of insufficient food production? Is famine the most common reason for hunger? Is famine caused by food insufficiency? Is hunger caused by overpopulation?
There is enough food in the world to feed the population on a vegetarian diet but not in poor countries there is enough food for everyone, famine is not the most common reason for hunger daily efficiency. Famine isn’t cause by food insufficiency but by the lack of work and the fact that people had no money or land, and it is not caused by overpopulation people don’t have the resources that they need.
Why is it possible to be malnourished or to starve in the world today?
From massive unemployment and high food prices.
Historically, why have people left the land on which they produced their own food to seek wage employment, which requires that they buy food from others?
People have left the land,,,due to the emergence of cities. This shift was due to the cities and the higher standards of living that was being provided.
Why, perhaps, did humans shift from gathering and hunting to domesticating plants and animals?
Suggested increase in population density may have required people to forage over larger areas in search of food, but by having domesticating animals and plants was very Neolithic.
What is the advantage of plow and irrigation agriculture? In what parts of the world did irrigation agriculture begin?...
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