Gender vs. Sex
*SEX: Refers to anatomical or biological characteristics of women and men. *GENDER: The roles and characteristics that society assigns to men and women, and has built within it the inequality of women and men. Gender Roles
*A set of expectations concerning behaviour and attitudes that relates to being male or female Pink Collar Ghetto
* men make more money the females in the same position (chart on the powerpoint) Hegemonic Masculinity and Femininity
*Hegemonic masculinity refers to the socially accepted “norms” of masculine behaviour and attitudes. *“Hegemonic masculine practices are those that serve to normalize and naturalize men’s dominance and women’s subordination” The Male Gaze
*“One might simplify this by saying: men act and women appear. Men look at women. Women watch themselves being looked at. This determines not only most relations between men and women but also the relation of women to themselves.” * assume a male gaze of which women are the object.
*Female body as a cinematic spectacle.
*Male hero drives action of films.
*Female characters exist only in relation to male desire.
*Women possess “to-be-looked-at-ness.”
*A social system in which men hold political, economic, and social power.
*The belief that men are superior to women (the “weaker sex”) has long been a dominant attitude in patriarchal society. Homophobia
*Homophobia, the fear of being perceived as gay, as not a real man, keeps men exaggerating all the traditional rules of masculinity, including sexual predation with women. Homophobia and Sexism go hand in hand.” Ideology of Fag
* “a set of beliefs and sanctions invoked throughout society to keep people in line: if you violate a gender role, then you must be gay.” Gendered Occupations/Division of Labour
* look at the charts on the power point (women just paid a lot less for same job) *Women currently make up only 22% of the members of the Canadian House of Commons. Feminism:
*Feminism is not about hating men or burning bras, it is about becoming self-conscious of sexist ideology and the conditions of inequality that persist between men and women. *Feminism is about fighting for justice and equality between genders. Feminist Liberalism (see p. 356-357)
*Examines whether women receive fair pay for the work they do: Pay Equity *Credited with securing benefits for women on maternity leave. Feminist Essentialism (see pp. 357-358)
*Looks at the differences between the way women and men think and argues for equality in that difference. *Validates “maternal thinking” and women’s morality as unique and even superior to male behaviours, such as aggression and competition.
Feminist Postmodernism (see pp. 360)
*Disputes the idea that gender identity is connected to some biological “essence”, arguing instead that gender identity is a performance *Gender is seen not as only male or female, but as a continuum with male and female at the two extremes and many other possibilities in-between.
Chapter 12 Race and Ethnicity
*The systematic practice of stereotyping and persecuting people on the basis of their race Racialization
*“A social process in which groups of people are viewed and judged as essentially different in terms of their intellect, morality, values, and innate worth because of differences of physical type or cultural heritage” Forms of Racism
Racial Bigotry: An open, conscious expression of racist views by an individual. Polite / Smiling /Friendly Racism Ex. The Friendly Realtor Systemic or Institutional Racism: When racist practices, rules, and laws become “part of the system” Elements of Racism
1) The historical construction of certain groups of people as biologically superior or inferior. 2) Prejudice: the “pre-judgment” of others on the basis of their group membership. 3) Discrimination: includes acts by which individuals are treated differently 4) Power: when institutionalized...