Social and Ethical Issues in Information Technology

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Reliability
-operation of hardware
-design of software
-accuracy of data (correspondent with real world & up to date) Accuracy
-in correspondence with real world & up to date
-data accessibility
-hardware functionality
Integrity
-safeguarding the accuracy
-no integrity if data is changed accidentally or tampered with -completeness
-security (prevents data from being lost, stolen, cracked)
-safety (data is clean against virus/ malicious worms)
-quality
Security
-protection of software, hardware, machines, networks against -unauthorized access, use, disruption, destruction, disclosure -concerned with:
-confidentiality/ privacy
-integrity
-availability (security controls to make sure system is up and running) -authenticity (ensuring data is genuine)

Assurance
- level of guarantee that a system will run expectedly
Countermeasure
- stop a threat from triggering a risk event against security Defence in depth
- never rely on a single security measure
Exploit
- vulnerability triggered by an event: risk is 100%
Risk
- possible event that can cause loss
Vulnerability
- weakness in a target that can potentially be exploited by a threat security

Privacy
- groups & individuals have the right to determine to what extent, how, to whom, when their information is disclosed Data mining
- searching & analyzing masses of data to find patterns & develop new information or knowledge Computer profiling
- analyzing data in computer files to determine characteristics of people who are likely to engage in certain behaviour

Data protection should ideally be
-obtained lawfully and fairly
-used only for specified purpose
-adequate, not too much
-kept secure
-destroyed after its use
-accurate & up to date

Anonymity
-information that may result in the end user’s identification is not disclosed -your name not being revealed
-it’s a security service

Intellectual property
-works of the mind that are distinct and have a creative or intellectual value, produced by a single person/group -credit for creativity, research, labour,…
Copyright
- the legal right to sell, publish, distribute an original artistic work Fair use doctrine
Allows portions of copyrighted materials to be used without permission, but -limited material
-limited audience
-educational purpose
-no profit
-does not influence market value
Copyright rights
-distribution
-derivation
-copy
Fair use
-commentary
-parody
-limited educational use
Copyright infringement
- violation of rights owned by copyright owner. Copying a substantial amount of work without permission. Cyberquatting
- registering domain name to profit off someone’s trademark (WIPO resolved disputes between private parties) Trademarks
- a logo or phrase or design that is linked to a brand
Open source code
- code is available to users for reading, redistribution, modification of the software’s code to improve software Authenticity
-establishing a user’s identity beyond reasonable doubt
-retinal and iris scan, fingerprint scan, password, key, palm scan, voice recognition, encryption Encryption
- coding data so it can only be understood by the recipient
Cryptology
-science of analyzing & deciphering codes, ciphers and cryptograms

Surveillance
-the use of IT to monitor the actions of people;
-monitoring may be used to track, record, and assess employee’s performance (e.g. if they follow the organization’s internet policy properly). Advantages:
> increase efficiency so proper time is allocated for a task & employee doesn’t use computers for other activities; > prevents corporate espionage & sabotage;
> reduces chances of data corruption (e.g. viruses).
Disadvantages:
> economic cost to the company;
> diminishes individual privacy.

CCTV (closed circuit television)
-signal isn’t openly transmitted;
-not only for surveillance but also for security.
Public purposes:
> prevention of crimes;
>...
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