Socialization: Lifelong (process) social experience by which people develop their human potential & learn culture Personality: A persons fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking and feeling
The social Sciences: The role of Nurture
* Psychologist John B Watson developed a theory called behaviorism, which holds that behaviour is not instinctive but learned. (Nature not nurture) * Nurture is our nature
Studies of non human primates
* Psychologist Harry and Margaret placed rhesus monkeys (surprisingly there behaviour is same as humans) in various conditions of social isolation – * They found that complete isolation for 6 months seriously disturbs the monkey’s development * Infant monkeys in cages with an artificial mother made of wire with wooden head – they survived by could not interact with others when placed in a group. * Harlow’s concluded it is important that adults cradle infants affectionately. * Infants monkey could recover from about three months of isolation – 3 months+ cause serious damage Studies of isolated children
* Anna died at the age of 10 with a blood disorder.
* Isabelle spoke around 2000 words. At the age of 14 she was in grade 6. * Genie abused by her parents. She was tied to a potty chair at the age of 2. She lives with adults.
Sigmund Freud’s Elements of Personality
Lived in Vienna at times when most Europeans considered human behaviour to be biologically fixed. Trained as a physician, Freud gradually turned to the study of personally and mental disorders. Basic Human Needs
* Biology plays a major role in human development
* Humans have two basic needs that are present at birth:
* 1st sexual and emotional bonding (which is called life instinct) * 2nd death instinct or thanatos (Greek: death)
* These opposing forces, operating at an unconscious level create deep inner tensions
Freud’s Model of Personality...