Settling the Northern Colonies

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Chapter 3
Settling the Northern Colonies
1619-1700
 
The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism
Martin Luther .  He declared that the Bible alone was the source of God's words.  He started the "Protestant Reformation." John Calvin  He spelled out his doctrine in 1536 called Institutes of the Christian Religion.  He formed Calvinism.  King Henry VIII formed the Protestant Church. 

There were a few people who wanted to see the process of taking Catholicism out of England occur more quickly.  These people were called Puritans. A tiny group of Puritans, called Separatists, broke away from the Church of England. King James I had them exiled from England. 

The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth
Separatists in Holland settled in Plymouth Bay in 1620.
Pilgrim leaders drew up and signed the Mayflower Compact.  This was a simple agreement to form a crude government and to agree to the majority under the regulations agreed upon.  It was signed by 41 males.  It was the first attempt at a government in America. In the Pilgrims' first winter of 1620-1621, only 44 of the 102 survived. In 1621, there was the first Thanksgiving Day in New England. William Bradford- elected 30 times as governor of the Pilgrims.  

The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth
Charles I dismissed Parliament in 1629 and sanctioned the anti-Puritan persecutions of the Archbishop William Laud. In 1629, a group of non-Separatist Puritans secured a royal charter to form the Massachusetts Bay Company During the Great Migration of the 1630s, about 70,000 refugees left England for America.  Most of them were attracted to the warm and fertile West Indies. John Winthrop- the Bay Colony's first governor.

 
Building the Bay Colony
Governor Winthrop of the Bay Colony did not like Democracy.  The freemen annually elected the governor and his assistants and a representative assembly called the General Court. Visible Saints was another name for the Puritans.

John Cotton- a very devoted Puritan.
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