Sensation and Perception
How vision (text), audition (text) taste, smell, and touch work (textbook.) Illusions, limbs, and blind site.
* What is real?
* Process of taking in – sensation through senses. Collection of environment extra * Perception- interpretation from environment. Extra
* Sensation: converting the stimulus (smell, sound, ect) as it arrives at receptors in the ears, eyes, or mouth, into neural impulses. * Perception: processing, comparing, and interpreting sensory stimuli to give them meaning. Biased process. * We try and find ways to interpret info to make it make sense to us. Extra. * Our own ways change the way we take in info. Biased based on who you like better. Extra * Both work together to interpret the environment.
Synesthesia: boundaries between the senses break down.
* Examples: the taste of beef, such as a steak, produces a rich blue * Guitar music brushes softly against her ankles
* Buttered toast is rough, but not pointy and if it has jelly on it the rough texture is rounded
(Functional MRI) FMRI has shown that when playing MUSIC FOR INDIVIDUALS WHO report the previous phenomenon, their auditory and visual cortex become active. Only auditory cortex becomes active for normals.
Disorder: needs to be abnormal (not normal or not common), uncommon needs dysfunction. You may not know it’s abnormal if you have always experienced it. Blind site: damage to visual cortex, people are able to see, but are unaware of their ability. Sensation is there but perception isn’t. Blindness: not be able to see.
Assessed with take in which individuals are asked to locate visual stimuli that they believe they cannot see. Avoid objects and not know that they are. Extra.
Phantom Limb Pain
First described in 16th century. Surgically removed and still feel pain 1866: 1st report accepted by medical field.
Termed coined by John Hughlings Jackson in 1884.
The incidence of phantom limb pain varies widely (2%-97%).
However 94-100% of amputees report sensing a phantom. Even if it doesn’t hurt. Paralysis felt.
Example: A women who was missing both arms: When it talk to you they are gesturing. They point to objects when I point to things, just like your arms and hands. Extra sensory perceptions: feelings things you can’t really sense. Outside normal sensory experience. Maggots and arm example. Cortex still wants to perceive. Itch in shoulder, the hand will feel even though its not there. Hommunculus: is (a model) a visual representation that helps communication on how motor parts affect representation. Larger part more cortex (hands, lips more sensation). Mirror Box: used to alleviate phantom pain.
Reflection of present limb appears to be missing limb.
Can work out complaints.
Selective attention: Focus awareness on one stimulus.
The cocktail party effect.
Sublimitnal Stimulation: under conscious awareness.
When stimuli are below ones threshold for conscious awareness. Used in advertising. Put something u don’t like beside something u do like. Gin and sex bottle example.
The bottle being poured with the male hands and penis being held. Condensation saying sex with the puddle on the ground. Do subliminal ads work? Very little empirical evidence supports it. Meta-analysis of 23 studies shows little effectiveness
* Effect size: r=0.0585.
Meta-analysis: analysis of analysis.
0- No effect
1 or -1 perfect
Very slight ability for subliminal to affect behavior. The 0.0585 Recent studies (1999,2003) suggest that subliminal ads can increase the desire to drink, but do not effectively lead to a drink choice. * Simpsons: Orangina vs. coca-cola.
Movie theaters most effective during previews.
Another use of subliminal stimulation:
Automatic priming tasks in prejudice measurement.
Presents race-related stimuli faster than can be consciously perceived. Measures reaction time latency to putting other words...
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