Selective Breeding

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selective breeding
-allow only organisms with desired traits to mate
1.Hybridization: cross 2 genetically different individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms inbreeding: the continued breeding individuals with similar characteristics B.DNA Technology

DNA finger printing (gel electrophoresis)
analysis of DNA sections that vary between individuals
procedure
i.restriction enzymes cut DNA into fragments at specific base pair sequences electrical current moves through DNA through gel
Fragments separate by size: shortened DNA move farther than long. Every one banding pattern is unique
Uses:
forensics
Comparing DNA sample fro crime scene it suspects victim
paternity test
diagnose genetic disorder
determine evolutionary relationships
3. Genetic engineering (recombinations DNA)
genes from one organism transferred into DNA of another organism procedure
A restriction enzyme cuts out the desired gene
Another enzyme splices desired gene into DNA of another organism . (DNA with new gene is called recombinant DNA) cells reproduce & new cells contain copies of the recombination DNA, which directs to produce desired protein. Other genetically modified organisms (GMO)

-enabling plants to produce new proteins
protect crops from insects: BT corn
corn produces a bacterial toxin that kills corn borer (caterpillar pest of corn ) Extended growing season: fish berries
strawberries with an anti- freezing gene from flounder
improve quality of food: Golden rice
rice producing vitamin A, improves nutritional value
Gene Therapy: Use recombination DNA technology produce human cells with “normal” gene to counteract disorder. Cloning
producing a genetically identical organism (clone) from a single cell To clone animals: (i.e Dolly)
using 3 different sheep
Egg cell removed from sheep #1
Nucleus removed from egg cell
Nucleus from cell of sheep #2 placed into empty egg cell
egg implanted into uterus of sheep #3
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