Earthquake Engineering can be defined as the branch of engineering devoted to mitigating earthquake hazards .In this broad sense, earthquake engineering covers the investigation and solution of the problems created by damaging earthquakes, and consequently the work involved in the practical application of these solutions, i.e. in planning, designing, constructing and managing earthquake-resistant structures and facilities In developing the Structural Engineering Slide Library as a resource for teaching structural and architectural engineering, the topic of structural dynamics is of prime importance. Earthquake engineering is one of the most visible aspects of this field and one of the most easily illustrated due to the extent and variety of structural damage in earthquakes; thus it was decided to devote a volume to this subject. Professor Bertero, of the Department of Civil Engineering and Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley is uniquely qualified for this undertaking. This publication is the outcome of extensive teaching in structural dynamics, theoretical and experimental research on structural components and structural systems in the field of earthquake-resistant design, as well as on-site studies of structural damage in major ea(x+a)^n=∑_(k=0)^n▒〖(n¦k) x^k a^(n-k) 〗rthquakes in Alaska, Argentina, Algeria, California, Guatemala, Japan, Nicaragua and Venezuela. The following material, usually seen only at conferences, is now made available for general use, and will be particularly useful as an aid to the teaching of structural dynamics and earthquake engineering.
1. The main objective of this volume is to illustrate to students of structural and architectural engineering the problems and solutions in attaining efficient earthquake-resistant structures and facilities 2.To prevent non-structural damage in frequent minor ground shaking 3.To prevent structural damage and minimize non-structural damage in occasional moderate ground shaking 4.To avoid collapse or serious damage in rare major ground shaking 5.Design of earthquake proof structures.
6.Low cost earthproof structures for saving lives during natural calamities. 7.Disaster management.
8.Factors leads to earthquake tremors.
9.forecasting of earthquake.
#features of flood
1.A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land
2.Floods can also occur in rivers, when flow exceeds the capacity of the river channel, particularly at bends or meanders. 3.Floods often cause damage to homes and businesses if they are placed in natural flood plains of rivers. 4.Some floods develop slowly, while others such as flash floods, can develop in just a few minutes and without visible signs of rain. 5.Additionally, floods can be local, impacting a neighbourhood or community, or very large, affecting entire river basins 6.Floods often happen over flat or low-lying areas when the ground is saturated and water either cannot run off, or cannot run off quickly enough to stop accumulating 7.Floods can occur if water accumulates across an impermeable surface (e.g. from rainfall) and cannot rapidly dissipate 8.Floods (in particular the more frequent/smaller floods) can also bring many benefits, such as recharging ground water, making soil more fertile and providing nutrients in which it is deficient. 9.Flood waters provide much needed water resources in particular in arid and semi-arid regions where precipitation events can be very unevenly distributed throughout the year. 10.Freshwater floods, particularly play an important role in maintaining ecosystems in river corridors and are a key factor in maintaining floodplain biodiversity. 11. Flooding adds a lot of nutrients to lakes and rivers which leads to improved fisheries for a few years, also because of the suitability of a floodplain for spawning .
# Features of Earthquake