Scaling Techniques

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  • Topic: Psychometrics, Likert scale, Semantic differential
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SCALING TECHNIQUES
Learning Objectives
Concept of Measurement and Scaling
Different Scales in Measurement and their properties
Introduction of different type of scaling Techniques
Comparative , non comparative
Continuous ,Special Rating scales
Mathematically derived scales
How to Choose a scale
Concepts
Why do we do scaling?
The most common reason for doing scaling is for scoring purposes. When a participant gives their responses to a set of items, we often would like to assign a single number that represents that's person's overall attitude or belief. Scaling

Scaling can be done in two ways:
To make a judgment about some characteristics of an individual and then placing them directly on a scale. To construct questionnaires in such a way that the score of individual’s responses assigns a place on a scale. Example of scaling

Consider a scale locating customers of a bank according to the characteristic “agreement to the satisfactory quality of service provided by the branch”. Responses may be:

Importance of scaling
It helps in conducting the survey.
It helps in Prediction.
It helps in formulation of ideas.
Types of measurement scales
Nominal Scale( Name and Count)
It is a system of assigning numbers, symbols of keeping track of people , objects, events. Least powerful ; No order, Distance or arithmetic origin.
Eg assigning no's to cricket players, credit card numbers, bank account numbers, employee ID numbers Marketing Examples:Brand number, Store Type, Gender Classification Types of measurement scales

Ordinal Scale : (Rank or Order)
The ordinal scale places events in order. It permits ranking of items from highest to lowest or vice versa. Used in Qualitative Research
Eg Assigning ranks to the students after result.
Marketing Examples: Preference rankings, market position, Social Class. Types of Scales Cont..
Interval Scale:(Score or Mark)
The interval scale has equal units of measurement ,thus making it possible to interpret not only the order of scale but also the distance between them. Eg :Temperature-Fahrenheit /Centigrade
Marketing Examples: attitudes, Opinions
Types of Scales Cont..
Ratio scale:
Ratio scale has absolute or true zero of measurement.
Eg: Length, Weight
Marketing Examples: Age, Income, Costs, Market Shares
Types of Scales
Rank Order Scale
Rank-order scales –
requires respondents to arrange a set of objects with regard to a common criterion e.g. interest in an ad, brand preferences, etc. Rank, order scale represent numbers, letters ,or other symbols used to rank items Closely corresponds with the choice process since buyers make direct comparisons amongst competing alternatives For n objects there are n(n-1)/2 comparisons to be made

Rank order Scale Example:
Rank the following attributes of a tractor on a scale of 1-5 according to their importance.(1=most Important,5=least Important) A Company Image
B Functions
C Price
D Power
E Design
Rank order Scale Example:
Advantages
Less time
Eliminates Intransitive Responses
Easily Understood
More Closely resembles market place environment
Can be converted to equivalent paired comparison data and derive an Interval Scale. Disadvantages
Only Ordinal Data is produced
Q- Sort Scaling
The “Q-sort” is a procedure for rank ordering a large number of statements. Rankings of statements by two or more groups can then be compared. .
Q- Sort Scaling Example
Toy Company is developing a new product. After marathon session the team has come up with 100 different products with minor variations and wants to find out which is the best combination and will sell most. Each respondent is given 100 statements and asked to place in 12 piles ranging from most highly agreed to least highly agreed. No of objects to sorted should not be less than 60 and more than 140.After placing all the cards respondent is asked to rank order only those in the most preferred pile. Constant Sum Scales

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