Siti Nurhaliza Othman
College of Business, School of Technology Management and Logistic, University Utara Malaysia, 06010, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia
Composting has been used as a mean of recycling organic matter back into the soil to improve soil structure and fertility. There is the need for a comprehensive infrastructure for reclaiming organic food and yard wastes at University Utara Malaysia. This paper reviewed information on the current composting practices for treating waste as a mean of addressing the environmental pollution concerns and a project which objective was to study the present state of the on-campus organic waste flows and to design a system to separate, collect, transport and compost this organic waste. This project aim to produce the initial model in UUM for waste composting at a larger scale.
Composting, waste management, environmental pollution
Solid waste generated in Malaysia constitutes of a large portion of organic material that can be readily composted. Composting which dispose off the organic material and at the same time producing usable compost as the end product is thought to be a good option for organic wastes disposal. Composting can reduce waste that UUM students throw away every day.
The project deliverable is a report describing the present state of the UUM’s organic waste flow, discussing various alternate solutions for the waste collection and composting subsystems and detailing a final solution. The objective of this project is to come out with a model of collecting and composting system for wastes produces in UUM. It also to reduce land filling, establish the costs and benefits of UUM waste composting, explore the use of various bulking agents and different compost recipes, provide opportunities for compost and composting related education and research and helps evaluate whether or not a large scale campus wide composting project might be worth pursuing.
Purpose of the study is to study the present state of the on-campus organic waste flows and to design a system to separate, collect, transport and compost this organic waste.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
The literature review will be discussing about the principles of the composting process from all aspects. 2.1 Definition
Composting is process that can convert organic waste into a dark-coloured soil that can be used to enrich our garden’s growth and performance (Griffin, 2005). Martin (2005) defined that composting is the biological decomposition of organic materials by microorganisms under controlled, aerobic conditions to a relatively stable humus-like material called compost. Composting can happen in many different ways using a variety of materials, methods, equipment scale of operation. For agricultural operations the common materials or feedstocks that are composted are livestock manures, bedding and various residual plant materials. Hargreaves et al. (2008) defined municipal solid waste (MSW) compost is increasing used in agriculture as a soil conditioner but also as a fertilizer.
2.2 Why Composting?
2.3.1 Healthier Plant
Organic matter is known as the soul of a healthy soil. Adding compost to yard or garden will help plant grow bigger and better. The organic matter in compost helps soil hold on to nutrients and water and it benefit to plants while reducing the risk of pollution (US Composting Council, 2010).
2.3.2 Composting saves money
According US Composting Council (2010) using compost as a soil conditioner or mulch reduces need to purchase these lawn and garden products. Composting in backyard may reduce trash removal costs. Many sanitation companies charge customers by the bag. Compost bin could decrease the number of bags household generates. Adding compost to garden can reduce or eliminate the need to buy chemical fertilizers or...