From: The U.S. Department of Education's Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement & Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students (OELA)
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LESSON PLAN 1
Content: Language arts
Grade Level: Fifth grade
reading a poem that uses metaphor
learning the meaning of metaphor
discussing the use of metaphor
writing a poem
(see attached poem for unfamiliar words)
"Dreams" by Langston Hughes
1. Explain what a metaphor is and why writers use it.
2. Pass out copies of "Dreams" by Langston Hughes. Read it aloud. Have students read it silently, and go over vocabulary items that are unfamiliar. 3. Discuss the effect of the poem with the students. Ask them: What does the poem mean to you?
How does it make you feel?
4. Ask students to locate the metaphors in the poem. Ask them: What is the purpose of the metaphors?
How could you say the same thing without using metaphors? Do you think that metaphors make the image more powerful? 5. Ask the class to give examples of other metaphors.
6. Have students write their own poems, using the title as a theme (e.g., the world, football, the class, war, love, etc.). Using Hughes' poem as a model for their own, they must include at least two metaphors in their own poem. Dreams
Hold fast to dreams
For if dreams die
Life is a broken-winged bird
That cannot fly.
Hold fast to dreams
For when dreams go
Life is a barren field
Frozen with snow.
Background information for the teacher
Langston Hughes was born on February 1, 1902 in Joplin, Missouri. He was raised by his mother and his grandmother because his parents separated soon after his birth. Around the world, Hughes is recognized as a poet, playwright, novelist, and short story writer. He often wrote about his experiences as a black man, and served as an interpreter of black life in America to the rest of the world. He was often called the "bard of Harlem" because of his attachment to that place and also because of the important role he played in the Harlem Renaissance. Hughes traveled to many parts of the world, including Mexico, Africa, Europe, Japan, Haiti, and the Soviet Union. He worked as a newspaper correspondent during the Spanish Civil War. Hughes died in New York City on May 22, 1967.
Source: The New Encyclopedia Britannica.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LESSON PLAN 2
Content: Mathematics and language arts
Grade Level: Kindergarten or first grade
Author: Nan Allison, Langley Park--McCormick Elementary School, Hyattsville, MD Learning outcomes:
using a technique for measuring
taller, tallest, shorter, shortest, the same height
drawing paper and crayons
balls of yarn
masking tape or Scotch tape
1. Working individually, each child draws and colors a picture of himself or herself. 2. In pairs, each child measures partner's height with yarn and cuts yarn at the proper length. 3. Children attach yarn for their height to the bottom of their own picture. 4. Pictures are hung side by side on the wall. Looking at pictures and lengths of yarn, children answer questions such as: 16. Who is tallest? shortest?
17. Who is taller, Nguyen or Veronica?
18. Are Anna and Bill the same height?
19. How did we measure?
5. Students then rearrange pictures on the wall in order from tallest to shortest (creating a class pictograph). If desired, the students can line up under the pictures to connect the pictures to the real objects.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LESSON PLAN 3
Content: Science and language arts
Grade Level: First grade...