Russian Revolution Notes

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30.1 Revolutions in Russia

* Russian Revolution: long time in coming
* Oppression of 19th century czarssocial unrest
* Revolts: army officers in 1825, peasants, secret groups plotted * 1881 students assassinated Alexander II (reformer)

Alexander III Upholds the Autocracy
* Autocracy: gov’t with total power
* Program of “autocracy, orthodoxy, and nationality”—led to censorship, secret police, exile * Oppression: goal was to create uniform culture
* Russian was official language
* Persecuted Jews—no land ownership, live in segregated areas, pogroms (organized violence against Jews)

Nicholas II Resists Change
* Goal was to preserve czarist tradition, but too many changes * Economic growth:
* Russia behind industrially
* Pushed for growth in heavy industry (i.e. steel), competitive by 1900 * Trans-Siberian Railway—longest rail line, connected all of Russia * Revolutionary Movement Grows:
* Problems associated with industrialism grew; unions outlawed * Huge gap bet. rich & poor economically & politically * Marxism attracted followers—“dictatorship of proletariat” * Split in group over tactics for revolution, Mensheviks & Bolsheviks (Marxists who supported a small group to begin radical change) * Lenin—leader of Bolsheviks, excellent organizer, ruthless; fled Russia to avoid arrest

Crises at Home and Abroad
* Series of events showed czar’s weakness & paved way for revolution * Russo-Japanese War:
* Competition for Korea & Manchuria led to war, 1904-1905 * Japan defeated Russia—huge embarrassment, led to unrest & revolt * Bloody Sunday, 1905:
* Workers & families protested for job reforms at czar’s winter palace * Soldiers fired on unarmed crowd
* Provoked strikes & violence across country—Nicholas allowed creation of Duma (Russia’s first parliament, but they wanted a...
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