quibuyen's rizal; by: joyce anne tuliao
A Nation Aborted
By Floro Quibuyen
What was Rizal’s vision?
Rizal’s vision was of the nation as an ethical community, a vision of an inclusive nation without borders, and not of a sovereign nation demarcated by a territory and protected by the armature of the state. He was convinced that the road to national liberation, to freedom and justice, was not via the violent seizure of state power—wherein today’s slaves become tomorrow’s tyrants.
• Agoncillo: Reformists were middle-class intellectuals called illustrados and the true revolutionaries were the masses. • Constantino: Accepts Agoncillo’s characterization. Furthermore, the illustrados provide the masses the ideology of European liberalism. • Ileto: texts of Rizal have 2 opposite and irreconcilable meanings– the elite’s modernist discourse on Rizal as the ‘liberal reformist’ and the peasants’ folk perception of Rizal as the “Tagalog Christ” • According to Quibuyen, the conflict between Rizal and del Pilar is not just a personality conflict. There were more profound political/ideological differences between Rizal and del Pilar, both illustrados, than between Rizal and Bonifacio. The periods and key events concerning Rizal’s political stand about separatism and the revolution. • 1861 - 1882: formative years– Calamba, Binan, Ateneo and the Jesuits, GOMBURZA, martyrdom, imprisonment of Teodora Alonzo, literary ventures, encounter with the guardia civil • 1882 - 1887: European sojourn, enlightenment education, medical studies, patriotism, Noli Me Tangere • 1887 – 1888: the turning point – The Calamba Hacienda Case • 1888 – 1892: second sojourn—radicalization of Rizal; historical ethnological, linguistic studies, Los Indios Bravos, conflict within break with del Pilar and La Solidaridad, El Filibusterismo • 1892 – 1896: the moment of truth – Rizal and the Revolution. La...
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