Brief chronology of Muslim Civilization
Stage of Preparation
571: Birth of the Prophet: Monday 12th Rabi-ul-Awwal (22 April 571). This year was marked with an invasion
of Makkah and an attempt to destroy the Ka‘bah (the year of the Elephant). 610: The first revelation in the cave at Mount Hira’. The beginning of Mohammad’s prophethood.
621: First pledge at ‘Aqaba: Search for a site for a Muslim state.
622: Second pledge at ‘Aqaba: Willingness of resident of Yathrib (Medinah) to receive Prophet Mohammad (saw) and his followers 3
622: 624: 628:
The Emergence of the State The Hijrah (migration to Yathrib/Madina): Marks the establishment of the Muslim state. Battle of Badr: New power in the Arab peninsula. Truce of Hudaibiya: Peace treaty to give people a chance to know about the new religion, and to focus on strengthening the newly emerged state. Prophet Mohammad sent letters to various heads of states. (beyond Arabian territories) Muslims return back to Makkah 5
631: Expedition to Tabuk Sending a message to Persian authorities (Persian occupied Arab territories and were hostile to the new religion) 632: Farewell pilgrimage at Makkah (khutbat Hajjat al-Wada’): 632: Death of the Prophet Mohammed (saw). Election of Abu Bakr as the Caliph. Transitory instability Attempts to destroy the new religion & state Pseudo-prophets, Rejection of paying Zakat (disloyalty to central authority) 6
Wars of liberation
633 - 641: Liberation of Arab territories (Bahrain, Oman, Iraq, Syria, al-Quds/ Jerusalem, and the remaining parts of Jazirah. (occupied by Persians and Roman Byzantines) 636: Defeating the occupying forces of the Romans (Battle of Yarmuk and liberation of Syria and alQuds. Defeat of the Byzantines at the Yarmuk enabled the Arabs to take control of Syria) 636: The last major battle against Persian Empire (the battle of Qadisiyyah) the fall of their capital ‘Madain’. 7...