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Running when a starting pistol signals the beginning of a race is an activity that encompasses the skeletal system, the muscular system and the nervous system. These systems function interdependently to enable an individual run successfully in a race immediately the pistol shoots (Oleksy, 2010).
a) The structures and the afferent division of the peripheral nervous system that are involved in the activity of running are: skeletal muscles (Diagram 1), sensory or afferent neurons, the Dendrites, the auditory nerve; the ear (4) the eyes and other sense organs found on the skin. The
peripheral nervous systems (PNS) are made up of the nerves and ganglia found outside the brain and the spinal cord. Its main function is connecting the central nervous system (CNS) with the Effector organs such as the limb muscles.
b) Two structures of the central nervous system that are involved in the activity of running are; the brain and the spinal cord.
Diagram of the brain showing various parts
The main part of the brain involved in running is the Cerebellum; it coordinates the motor functions such as regulation of muscle movements and posture. The Cerebellum however has numerous Cranial nerves that aid it in the same.
Diagram of the Spinal cord
C). Seven structures of the efferent division of the peripheral nervous system that are involved during the activity of running are; skeletal muscles, cardiac muscles, Motor neuron, efferent dendrites, sympathetic ganglia and parasympathetic ganglia (Oleksy, 2010).
Diagram of a Motor neuron
Diagram of Efferent dendrites
a) Thirteen bones involved in running at a race are; tarsal bones which comprise of Cuneiforms, Cuboid , Navicular , Talus, Calcouldeous , Metartasals , Phalanges, Tibia, Fibula , Femur , Patella , Scapula, Humerus (Marshall, 2010).
7. Clavicle, 12. Radius, 13. Ulna, 14. Metacarpals, 15. Phallenges, 17. Femur, 18. Patella, 19. Tibia, 20. Fibula, 21. Metatarsals, 22. Tarsals, 24. Scapula,
b) Five joints that are involved in running are; knee joint, ankle joint, shoulder joint, subtalar joint and hip joint. These joints are of three types, Gliding joints, Ball and Socket joints and Hinge joints.
Hinge Joint Diagram
Ball and Socket joint
Thirteen muscles involved in running are listed below after the diagram.
10. Rectus Femoris, 11. Vastus Lateralis, 12. Vastus Medialis, 13. Quadriceps femoris, 15. Extensor digitorum longus, 16. Tibialis Anterior,
6. Tibialis Posterior, 7. Flexor hallucis longus, 8. Fibularis brevis. 15. Gluteus medius, 17. Semitendinosus, 18. Semimembanosus, 19. Biceps Femoris,
The activity of running comprises interplay of many systems of the body. The central nervous system receives efferent fibers from the peripheral nervous system when the pistol is fired. These fibers will traverse in sensory neurons to the spinal cord and brain. Here, the information is integrated and sent back to various effector organs of the body through the afferent fibers which traverse in motor neurons. The information stimulates the athlete’s muscles to contract and propel the body forward aided by multiple bones of the body. The afferent neurons further stimulate adrenal glands to produce adrenaline and catecholamines which
increase the activities of the heart and muscles. The motor fibers further stimulate contraction of smooth muscles of the heart to increase the cardiac output. Running, therefore,...