Chapter 1: The Foundations of History
Why study history?
To learn about our past
To understand the present
To appreciate our heritage in a broad perspective
To acquire a background for critical thinking
The meaning of history
Yesterday of mankind
Record of the past
The story of all Filipinos
History Defined ( There are two types of Historical epoch: ) 1. Pre-historic past – refers to the time before man invented writing. 2. Historic past – time where events are recorded through written documents What are historical facts?
1. What is the historical fact?
~ statement about the event
2. Where is the historical fact?
~ in a historians mind, or in somebody’s mind or they are nowhere and in a sense they are in the sources 3. When is the historical fact?
How is history made?
When someone writes a document for posterity or to remember an event in the past, history is made When someone confirmed that an event actually transpired in the past, history is made Sources of historical data
Orally transmitted materials
Relics and remains
Causative interpretation of history (Why is there history? What causes a historical event to happen?) According to:
Greeks and Romans: fate and destiny; hence, we cannot do something about it The Christian view of history: divine concern for the welfare of mankind; universality of true religion Voltaire: chance and fortuity; doesn’t believe in divine creature Hegel: materialist concept
Darwinian theory of evolution: the rule of the survival of the fittest and passing of characteristics to generations The Marxian philosophy: mode of production in economic life determines the social, political, cultural processes of life A rhythm-philosophy explains that it is a series of pulsations History and changes
History is only possible because of changes.
Two types of changes:
~ Quantitative changes: development
~ Qualitative changes: growth
When combined, they form progress.
Chapter 2: The Land and the People
The Earth’s surface shapes human activity
Much of men have done in the past and how they have acted depended on where they lived Philippine geography
Southeastern portion of Asia
7,107 islands and islets
Total area of 300,000 square kilometers
Ten largest island: Luzon, Mindanao, Palawan, Negros, Samar, Panay, Mindoro, Leyte, Cebu, Bohol Northernmost point: Y’ Ami Isle, about 78 miles from Taiwan Southernmost point: Saluag Isles, 34 miles east of Borneo
As of 2006,
~ 80 provinces ( latest addition is Saranggani )
~ 117 cities
~ 17 local government in Metro Manila are now chartered cities Theories of the origin of Philippines:
~ Phil. was part of the lost Pacific continent called Lemuria or Mu which sank in the pre-historic times ~ Land Bridge Theory: Phil. was part of continental Asia
~ According to Dr. Fritjof Voss, Phil. resulted from earthquake due to moving tectonic plates ~ According to Dr. Bailey Willis, Phil. was of volcanic origin ~ According to Halili ( 2004 ), volcanic origin thus it has grand mountain ranges and summits of submerged mountain mass Longest continous mountain range:
~ Sierra Madre in east
~ Caraballo in west
Highest mountain: Mount Apo; 9,690 feet high; waling-waling and Philippine eagle can be found Longest river: Cagayan River
Largest river: Mindanao river
Character traits of the Filipinos
Pakikisama or sense of togetherness or comradeship
Utang na loob or dept of gratitude
Hiya or sense of shame
Hospitable, gentle and peace-loving people
Have close family ties
Chapter 3: The Philippine Prehistory
Civilization and culture
Ethnocentrism: person’s belief in the superiority of his group Xenocentrism: opposite of ethnocentrism
Houses are called bahay kubo
Male clothing: kanggan and bahag
Women clothing: baro or camisa and saya...