Be sure you can define, explain, apply, and generate examples all of the concepts listed below.
Retrieval Cues- hints that make it easier for us to recall information EX. “Do you remember the word that went with ‘A part of the body’?” “Finger”
Influence of Context on Memory and supporting research—Superior retrieval of memories when the environment in which we retrieve information is similar to the environment in which we learned it in. Godden and Baddley- EX. Learn of land, get tested on land= %of words remembered is greater than learn on land and get tested underwater.
State-dependent learning—Retrieval of memories when the organism is in the same physiological state as it was during encoding EX. Getting drunk to remember where they put something when they were previously drunk; hearing a song when your sad, next time you hear it you might become sad.
Encoding specificity- Tendency for memories to come back if related info is available when the memory is being retrieved. EX. Taking a test in the same room you learned the material in.
Retrieval failures – reasons we forget EX. Interference: Information learned earlier interferes with info learned later.
Types of Amnesia- Memory Loss- Retrograde: Loss of memories from the past Anterograde: Inability to encode new memories
False memories (Not ALWAYS false) - emotional memories that are thought to be extraordinarily vivid and detailed. EX. Remembering exactly where you were on 9/11
Misinformation effect- Creation of fictitious memories by providing misleading information about an even after I takes place. EX. Loftus car crash study. Saying “hit” or “smashed made a difference in the person’s memory of the accident.
Concepts- A set of ideas that represent a class of objects
Natural concepts- Formed as a result of ones experience with the world (experiences) EX. When someone refers to a fruit, we automatically think apple. (western new York)
Formal concepts- Ones that are defined by specific rules or features. (rules) EX. When you think of the term Bachelor, what do you associate them as? Single, male, adult.
Rule Theory- helps us to identify a concept if the object or event fits the rule then it’s an example of the concept and may be an example of the category. EX. Square-has to have 4 equal sides.
Prototypes- Based on concepts we develop prototypes.-An abstraction of the most common attributes of the concept. Depend on our cultural and social experience. EX. Since I grew up with Golden Retrievers, I would see them as a better example of a dog then a shiatsu.
Problem Solving – ways we solve problems 1.) Trial and Error 2.)Algorithm-step by step procedure 3.)Heuristics-Simple thinking strategy; quick 4.)Insight- Sudden novel realization of a solution
Limitations to our Problem Solving (e.g. fixation, framing)- Fixation- Inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective. Framing- Way an issue is posed, way a problem is phrased.
Mental set- Becoming stuck in a specific problem-solving strategy, inhibiting our ability to generate alternative. EX. Trying to think of a topic to write about but can only think of the topics your professor used as examples.
Functional Fixedness- difficulty conceptualizing that an object typically used for one purpose can be used for another. EX you are fixed on the idea that something needs to be used when there are other possibilities (Using shoe as a hammer)
Intelligence-Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
Theories of Intelligence- General Intelligence (Spearmen) - You either have a lot, a little, or none.
Multiple Intelligence (Gardener) - There are 8 separate types of intelligence. EX. Linguistic, Logical, Musical, Spatial, Bodily, Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Naturalist, Existentialist. --- Savant Syndrome- A person is limited in their...