Review Sheet chapters 11,12, 13, 14
Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theory: Piaget’s stages of cognitive development: Sensorimotor- Infant -6mos.
Concrete Operations- 6-11mos.
Formal Operations- 12-
Sensorimotor- birth to age 2- initial major stage of cognitive behavior/ invariant order of stages individual different innate 1.
Simple Reflexes ( 0-1 month)
Habits and primary circular reactions (1-4 month)
Activity that permits the construction of cognitive schemes through repetition chance motor event •
Primary repeating of interesting of enjoyable actions
Secondary circular reaction (4-8 months) e.g. shake rattle 4.
Coordination of secondary circular reaction (8-12 months) goal directed behavior object permanence *Understanding object continue to exist* 5.
Tertiary circular reactions (12-18 months) desirable consequences 6.
Beginning of thought (18-24 months) *Ability to form Mental Pic* 1.
Capacity for mental representation (symbolic thought)
Ability to pretend
Strengthening of object permanence
Encoding- Process of information is initially recorded in form usable to memory Storage- Maintenance of material saved in memory
Retrieval- Process which material in memory storage is located (awareness and use) Infantile Amnesia- Lack of memory for experiences that occurred before 3 yrs. Language: systemic, meaningful arrangement of symbolic and provides the basis for communication Phoneme- to the basic sounds of language; produce words and sentences Morpheme- smallest language unit that communicates meaning
Semantics- the rules that govern the meaning of words and sentences Linguistic comprehension- the understanding of speech
Linguistic production- use of language to communicate
Babbling- speech-like meaningless sounds infants make about 2-3 months until 1 yr. Holophrase- one word utterance that depend the particular context which are used to determine meaning Telegraphic Speech- linking words in a sentence (word are not critical to message left out) e.g. “Kitty go” Underextension- using word too restrictively (is common)
Overextension- using words too broadly (is also common)
Expressive- language is used to primarily to express feelings and needs about self/others Referential Language Styles- language is used primarily label objects Theories of language:
Learning theory- language acquisition follows basic laws reinforcement and conditioning Nativist- proposes that a genetically determined innate mechanism directs lang. dev. Chomsky’s language acquisition device (LAD) - neural system of the brain hypothesized permits the understanding of language Interactionist-
Specific course of lang. dev. Is determined by lang. to which child are exposed & reinforcement received using particular ways •
Social factors are key to dev.
Infant (child)-directed speech- Child speaking with infant
Pitch of voice is higher
Intonation may be singsong
Typically only used during 1st yr.
Stranger anxiety- Caution and wariness displayed by infants encountering unfamiliar ppl. •
Memory develops >ability to recognize
Familiar ppl. Emerges > ability to anticipate and predict events •
Increases >appearances of unknown person cause fear
Common around 6mos.
*Men scarier than women; Adult scarier than children*
Separation anxiety- distress displayed when customary care provider departs •
Universal across cultures
7-8mos. peaks @ 14 mos.
Largely attributable to same reasons as stranger anxiety *Separation anxiety establishes a bond with parents*
Social referencing- intentional search of information to explain the meaning of uncertain circumstances and events •
1st occurred around 8-9mos.
Intentional search cues
Aids in understanding others behavior in context.
Attachment: Positive emotional bond that dev. between child & particular individual Secure-...
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