Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theory: Piaget’s stages of cognitive development: Sensorimotor- Infant -6mos.
Concrete Operations- 6-11mos.
Formal Operations- 12-
Sensorimotor- birth to age 2- initial major stage of cognitive behavior/ invariant order of stages individual different innate 1.Simple Reflexes ( 0-1 month)
2.Habits and primary circular reactions (1-4 month)
•Activity that permits the construction of cognitive schemes through repetition chance motor event •Primary repeating of interesting of enjoyable actions
3.Secondary circular reaction (4-8 months) e.g. shake rattle 4.Coordination of secondary circular reaction (8-12 months) goal directed behavior object permanence *Understanding object continue to exist* 5.Tertiary circular reactions (12-18 months) desirable consequences 6.Beginning of thought (18-24 months) *Ability to form Mental Pic* 1.Capacity for mental representation (symbolic thought)
•Ability to pretend
•Strengthening of object permanence
Encoding- Process of information is initially recorded in form usable to memory Storage- Maintenance of material saved in memory
Retrieval- Process which material in memory storage is located (awareness and use) Infantile Amnesia- Lack of memory for experiences that occurred before 3 yrs. Language: systemic, meaningful arrangement of symbolic and provides the basis for communication Phoneme- to the basic sounds of language; produce words and sentences Morpheme- smallest language unit that communicates meaning
Semantics- the rules that govern the meaning of words and sentences Linguistic comprehension- the understanding of speech
Linguistic production- use of language to communicate
Babbling- speech-like meaningless sounds infants make about 2-3 months until 1 yr. Holophrase- one word utterance that depend the particular context which are used to determine meaning Telegraphic Speech- linking words in a sentence (word are not critical to message left out) e.g. “Kitty go” Underextension- using word too restrictively (is common)
Overextension- using words too broadly (is also common)
Expressive- language is used to primarily to express feelings and needs about self/others Referential Language Styles- language is used primarily label objects Theories of language:
Learning theory- language acquisition follows basic laws reinforcement and conditioning Nativist- proposes that a genetically determined innate mechanism directs lang. dev. Chomsky’s language acquisition device (LAD) - neural system of the brain hypothesized permits the understanding of language Interactionist-
•Specific course of lang. dev. Is determined by lang. to which child are exposed & reinforcement received using particular ways •Social factors are key to dev.
Infant (child)-directed speech- Child speaking with infant
•Pitch of voice is higher
•Intonation may be singsong
•Typically only used during 1st yr.
Stranger anxiety- Caution and wariness displayed by infants encountering unfamiliar ppl. •Memory develops >ability to recognize
•Familiar ppl. Emerges > ability to anticipate and predict events •Increases >appearances of unknown person cause fear
Common around 6mos.
*Men scarier than women; Adult scarier than children*
Separation anxiety- distress displayed when customary care provider departs •Universal across cultures
•7-8mos. peaks @ 14 mos.
•Largely attributable to same reasons as stranger anxiety *Separation anxiety establishes a bond with parents*
Social referencing- intentional search of information to explain the meaning of uncertain circumstances and events •1st occurred around 8-9mos.
•Intentional search cues
•Aids in understanding others behavior in context.
Attachment: Positive emotional bond that dev. between child & particular individual Secure-...