Review Foundations Ap World

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AP World History Test Review
Foundations: 8000BCE-600CE

Directions – Complete the following review sheet by writing in the correct information for all the statements/words in bold. This outline follows the College Board course outline for AP World History.

1. Time: Periodization in Early Human History & What ushered in the next period? Paleolithic Age: Major developments- Stone tools, natural shelters, fire, warfare bury dead, migration, organization, gender roles emerge, and village organization.

Neolithic Age: Population increases, harvesting wild grains, food surplus, job specialization, animal domestication, inventions, religion government, and gender differences.

Ancient Civilizations: Agricultural changes, economic changes, irrigation, artisans, religious organization, social classes develop, advanced cities with centers of trade, new tools, record keeping (scribes), institutions for government, religion, and education.

Classic Civilizations: China: Zhou, Qin, Han; India: Aryans, Maurya, Gupta; Mediterranean: Persian, Greece, Roman Empire.

2. Foraging & Pastoral Societies: Their Demographic Characteristics Foraging societies/hunters-gatherers
• Organization:
o Chiefs, religious leaders
o Natural shelters
o Cave/tent
o Warfare
o Small bands based on food availability
o Mobile
• Culture:
o Stone Tools
o Egalitarian
o Nomadic
o Migrations
• Gender roles:
o Egalitarian society
o Men: Hunt
o Women: Gather
o Both important and equal

Pastoral Societies

• Organization:
o Population increase
o ‘Revolution’- gradual
o Job specialization
o One farmer= feeds
o Government emerges
o Organized irrigation
o Distribute surplus
• Culture:
o Religion emerges
o Nature based religion
o Pottery
o Calendars
• Gender Roles:
o Gender differences emerge
o Women lose status
o Men farm- More valuable

3. The Emergence if Agriculture & its Effects: The Neolithic Revolution (8000-3000BCE) NOMADS->NEOLITHIC VILLAGE->CITY->CIVILZATION
Major Effects of the Neolithic Revolution
• On Economy:
o Sedentary
o Food Surplus
o Job Specialization
• On Culture:
o Inventions
o more time for hobbies
o Religion (nature based)
o Need writing
• On Political Organization:
o Population increase
o Government emerges
o Distribution surplus
• On Gender Roles:
o Women lose status
o Men farm which is more valuable
o Gender differences emerge
• On the Environment:
o Domestication of animals
o Irrigation system
o Diseases
o Humans after environment
• New inventions associated with agriculture:
o Calendars
o Plows
o Hoes
o Wheels
o Pottery
o Weapons

4. Introduction of key stages of metal use
Neolithic Age – New Stone Age – ends with metalworking
• 6600 BCE – Copper used in Europe, Asia
• Metallurgy – extracting from raw ore and metalwork – crafting – quite difficult • 3500-3000 BCE – Bronze from copper/tin discovered in Middle East, Balkans, Southeast Asia – later part Neolithic Age – Bronze Age • Americas and Asia never had a bronze age – tin scarce Scarcity of tin pushed need for international trade • 1500-1200 BCE – Iron Age – Hittites

Spread to Europe in 1000 BCE, Africa in 500 BCE
Possible to cultivate hard packed soil/more land
Wave of invasions from outside Mesopotamia

5. Basic features of early civilizations in different environments: culture, state, & social structure • Features of a civilization/things...
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