RETROFITTING AND REHABILITATION OF CIVIL ENGINEERING STRUCTURES
WHAT IS THE CONCEPT OF REPAIRING?
• Once problems are clearly identified and objectives have been set, a timetable for repair is established in close consultation with the property owner that is in keeping with the findings of the evaluation.
• First and foremost, the contractor must comply with the drawing details and specifications. To further ensure the durability of the repair, repair procedures and selection of the repair materials must be compatible with the substrate.
FIRST STEP: To find out causes
• The causes can be discussed as follows (Investigated).
• Assessment damaged by earthquake , blasts, fire, functionally deteriorating.
• Assessment of quality of construction.
• Assessment of structure for further expansion.
• Assessment of ageing structures by non destructive tests, Load tests, etc,.
Types of Construction Site Accidents
• Construction site falls.
• Crane accidents.
• Scaffolding accidents.
• Run over by operating equipment
• Electrical accidents.
• Trench collapses.
• Fires and explosions
HOW TO CARRY IT??
• It is only by the “NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTS”
We obviously knew why should it be a non destructive test, because we aren’t allowed to destruct the entire structure in the name of testing.
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Evaluation and Repair of Fire-Damaged Buildings
• Typically, repair materials are similar to the original construction materials.
• Timber structures may be repaired with new timbers or composites of steel and timber members, and steel structures are normally repaired with steel.
• Concrete and masonry structural elements are frequently repaired with fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) or externally bonded steel members using epoxy adhesive. Concrete structures are occasionally repaired with shotcrete as well.
• Selecting the appropriate repair material is a critical step in the repair process. The repair material must be compatible with the base material, project needs, technical resources available, financial constraints, and multiple other project specific criteria.
CASE STUDY ( REPAIR OF FIRE DAMAGED BUILDING)
Two case studies are presented to illustrate various types of structural damage and repairs.
• The first summarizes the assessment and repair for arson damage to a reinforced concrete stadium structure.
• The second addresses the evaluation and repair of damage to a steel framed office building.
Slab separation and joist spalling
Case Study 1: Stadium Fire
An arson fire occurred on an elevated level of a reinforced concrete stadium structure. After the fire department approved the area for entry, initial observations were made. The fire severely damaged the concrete in an area approximately 25 feet by 25 feet above the fire; the concrete joists were deeply spalled, the slab separated from the joists, and severe cracking was present
The fire was intense to the extent that the seating area directly above the fire suffered heat damage
Case Study 2: Occupied Steel High Rise Fire
Fire occurred in an occupied space of a steel framed high rise. The steel framing was protected by a sprayed fire resistive material. The exposed metal deck supports a composite concrete floor system.. Heat from the fire caused some buckling of the metal decks near the fire
Buckled metal deck. Note separation of concrete from metal deck through exploratory opening
The evaluation effort included steel hardness readings...
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