# Research Notes

STEPS IN TESTING A HYPOTHESIS

Step 1 – Making Assumptions

Two types of assumptions:

Assumptions that you know because you did it while conducting the research; and Assumptions that you do not know - that is why you are conducting the test of statistics. This second assumption is your statement of the null and alternative hypothesis

TYPES OF STATISTICAL HYPOTHESES

Null hypothesis. The null hypothesis, denoted by H0, is usually the hypothesis that sample observations result purely from chance. Alternative hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis, denoted by H1 or Ha, is the hypothesis that sample observations are influenced by some non-random cause. Step 2 - Identifying a Sampling or Probability distribution

Step 3 – Establishing a level of significance and critical region Step 4 – Calculate/compute the test

Step 5 – Make decisions

Step 6 – Conclusions

THE RESEARCH PROCESS

THE GOAL OF RESEARCH

1. BODY OF KNOWLEDGE (THEORIES)

2. GROWTH OF SCIENCE/FIELDS

3. INTILLECTUAL GROWTH

4. IMPROVE HUMAN CONDITIONS/DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIETY

WHAT IS RESEARCH?

INVISTIGATION WITH A PURPOSE

STUDY OF A SOCIAL PROBLEM OR PROBLEMS FOLLOWING A SYSTEMATIC METHODS UNDER DELINEATED (CONTROLLED) CONDITIONS ASSESSMENT OF CONDITIONS

COMPARISONS OF CONDITIONS

THE SOCIAL RESEARCH PROCESS

STAGES OF SOCIAL RESEARCH

I. FORMULATION OF THEORIES

II. OPERATIONALIZATION

III. RESEARCH DESIGNS AND METHODS

IV. DATA COLLECTION

V. DATA ANALYSIS

VI. CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS

I. FORMULATION OF THEORIES

WHAT ARE THE COMPONENTS OF THIS STAGE?

1. Statement of the research problems

2. Statement of the research objectives

3. Theoretical framework

4. Conceptual framework

5. Statement of hypothesis

6. Significance and limitations

II. OPERATIONALIZATION

WHAT ARE INVOLVED IN THIS STAGE?

1. HOW CONCEPTS IN THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OR RESEARCH PROBLEMS ARE MEASURED 2. DUMMY TABLES CONSTRUCTION

3 .CONSTRUCTION OF TOOLS AND INSTRUMENTS

4. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF INSTRUMENTS

III. RESEARCH DESIGNS

THIS IS THE “BLUE PRINT” OF THE WHOLE RESEARCH.

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT RESEARCH DESIGNS?

ACCORDING TO PURPOSE:

1. EXPLORATORY RESEARCHES

A. RESEARCH IN NATURAL SETTINGS

B. OBSERVATION (DIRECT OR INDIRECT)

C. UNSTRUCTURED INTERVIEWS

D. FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS

2. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCHES

A. CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEYS

B. LONGITUDINAL/PANEL STUDIES

C. CASE-CONTROL STUDIES

3. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS

A. CLASSIC EXPERIMENT

B. SOLOMON-FOUR GROUPS DESIGN

4. QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS

A. ONE-GROUP BEFORE AND AFTER DESIGN

B. STATIC GROUP COMPARISONS

5. EVALUATION RESEARCHES

A. PARTICIPATORY IMPACT EVALUATION

B. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

C. IMPACT ASSESSMENT

D. RISK ASSESSMENT

E. RAPID APPRAISAL (RURAL RAPID APPRAISAL)

6. UNOBTRUSIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS

A. CONTENT ANALYSIS

B. TRACE ANALYSIS

ACCORDING TO TYPE OF ANALYSIS:

1. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

2. QUALITITATIVE ANALYSIS

3. COMBINATION OF QUANTI AND QUALI

1V. DATA COLLECTION

HOW DATA WILL BE COLLECTED?

WHAT ARE INVOLVED IN THIS STAGE?

1. PLAN FOR DATA COLLECTION

2. SAMPLING DESIGN

3. A PRE-TESTED RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS OR TOOLS

4. ACTUAL CONDUCT OF DATA COLLECTION

DIFFERENT METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION?

1. INTERVIEWS (DIRECT OR INDIRECT)

2. FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION

3. OBSERVATION

4. UNOBTRUSIVE MEASURES

5. EXAMINATIONS

6. PARTICIPATORY OBSERVATION

V. ANALYSIS OF DATA

HOW DATA ARE ANALYZED TO ANSWER THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS OF THE STUDY?

WHAT ARE INVOLVED IN THIS STAGE?

1. THE ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES

2. STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF THE DATA

3. DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF TABLES

VI. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

WHAT IS THE OUTCOME OR RESULTS OF THE STUDY?

GENERALIZATIONS

RECOMMENDATIONS BASED ON THE RESULTS OR OUTCOME OF THE STUDY

RESEARCH DESIGNS AND METHODS

What is research design?

Research design is the “blueprint” that guides the investigator in the various stages of the...

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