Research Methodology

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  • Topic: Research, Scientific method, Science
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  • Published : March 30, 2013
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Research Methodology

Unit 1

Unit 1

An Introduction to Research

Structure: 1.1 Meaning and Definition of Research Objectives 1.1.1 Research and Scientific Method 1.1.2 Characteristics of Research 1.2 Purpose of Research 1.3 Types of Research 1.3.1 Pure Research 1.3.2 Applied Research 1.3.3 Exploratory Research 1.3.4 Descriptive Research 1.3.5 Diagnostic Study 1.3.6 Evaluation Studies 1.3.7 Action Research 1.4 Research Approaches 1.5 Significance of Research in Social and Business Sciences Self Assessment Questions I 1.6 Summary 1.7 Terminal Questions 1.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs

1.1 Meaning and Definition of Research
Research simply means a search for facts – answers to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. The search for facts may be made through either:  Arbitrary (or unscientific) Method: It’s a method of seeking answers to question consists of imagination, opinion, blind belief or impression. E.g. it was believed that the shape of the earth was flat; a big snake swallows sun or moon causing solar or lunar eclipse. It is subjective; the finding will vary from person to person depending on his impression or imagination. It is vague and inaccurate. Or Page No. 1

Sikkim Manipal University

Research Methodology

Unit 1



Scientific Method: this is a systematic rational approach to seeking facts. It eliminates the drawbacks of the arbitrary method. It is objective, precise and arrives at conclusions on the basis of verifiable evidences. Therefore, search of facts should be made by scientific method rather than by arbitrary method. Then only we may get verifiable and accurate facts. Hence research is a systematic and logical study of an issue or problem or phenomenon through scientific method.

Young defines Research as “a scientific undertaking which, by means of logical and systematic techniques”, aims to: (a) Discover of new facts or verify and test old facts, (b) Analyze their sequences, interrelationships and causal explanations, (c) Develop new scientific tools, concepts and theories which would facilitate reliable and valid study of human behaviour. (d) Kerlinger defines research as a “systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena”. Objectives: After studying this lesson the students should be able to understand:  Research and scientific method  Characteristics of Research  Purpose of research  Different types of Research  Research Approaches  Significance of research in Social and Business Sciences 1.1.1 Research and Scientific Method Research is a scientific endeavour. It involves scientific method. “The scientific method is a systematic step-by-step procedure following the logical processes of reasoning”. Scientific method is a means for gaining knowledge of the universe. It does not belong to any particular body of knowledge; it is universal. It does not refer to a field of specific subject of matter, but rather to a procedure or mode of investigation.

Sikkim Manipal University

Page No. 2

Research Methodology

Unit 1

The scientific method is based on certain “articles of faith.” These are:  Reliance on Empirical Evidence: Truth is established on the basis of evidence. Conclusion is admitted, only when it is based on evidence. The answer to a question is not decided by intuition or imagination. Relevant data are collected through observation or experimentation. The validity and the reliability of data are checked carefully and the data are analyzed thoroughly, using appropriate methods of analysis. Use of Relevant Concepts: We experience a vast number of facts through our sense. Facts are things which actually exist. In order to deal with them, we use concepts with specific meanings. They...
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