Renaissance

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A.P. Review Chapter 12-Renaissance

1. Jacob Burckhardt
Swiss historian and art critic
Created modern concept of Renaissance
Civilization of The Renaissance in Italy
14th 15th cent. Italy birthplace of modern world and saw revival of antiquity and secularism

2. Baldassare Castiglione
Italian
1528 The Book of the Courtier
Ideals expected of aristocrat – fundamental handbook use for hundreds of years 3 basic attributes
Possess qualities of good character, grace, talents, noble birth Military/bodily achievements w/ classical edu. & life of arts (music, drawing, painting) Good impressions, do not hide compliments/grace

3. Cosimo de Medici
Italian merchant prince
First of Medici family to rule Florence
Took control of small merchant oligarchy

Lorenzo the Magnificent
Cosimo’s grandson
Dominated Florence the center of cultural Renaissance

4. Petrarch
Father of Italian Renaissance- lived in Avignon, last decades in Italy Literary career over lawyer (father’s desire)
Italy – guests of princes, city gov.
First intellectual to characterize Middle Ages as period of darkness Promotes mistaken belief medieval culture was ignorant about class. antiquity Blamed scholar philosophy of MA for uncivilized Latin and logic use than rhetoric/harmonize faith-reason Quest for Latin manuscripts

Worried about being too focused in spiritual ideas
Introduced humanist emphasis on classical Latin use
Cicero model for prose/ Virgil and poetry

5. Niccolὸ Machiavelli
Founder of modern, secular power
Secretary of Florentine Council of Ten
Diplomatic missions – witnessed workings of statecraft
15 12 Spanish victory over French – reestablish. Medici power Florence Republicans sent to exile and gave up politics
The Prince
Reflected political power – preoccupation w/ Italy’s political problems and knowledge of ancient Rome Ethical side of prince activity main focus late medieval political doc. Perfect prince – Cesare Borgia – son of Pope Alexander VI – ruthless measures to achieve new state in central Italy Realistic approach – abandon morality – understanding of human nature and act on behalf of state The Discourses

lessons people of his age can learn from inst. of Roman Republic

6. Three Estates
Nobility, clergy, peasants
Nobility
Served as military officers, political posts, advise king
Pursued edu. to maintain role
Great warriors tournament – more bloodshed than flamboyance and costumes Noble families moves into cities & merged w. merchant middle class Took aristocratic appearance

7. Humanism
Practice that emphasized reason, scientific inquiry, human fulfillment, & rejects belief in God Secularized history writing – reducing miracles b/c of new approach (not Anti–Christ)

8. High Renaissance
Individualistic forms of Ren. art, final stage of Ren. art
Increasing importance of Rome as cultural center of Ita. Renaissance Dominated by artistic giants
Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo

9. Peace of Lodi
Signed by Italians & ended almost half cent. of war – intro. peaceful era Balance of power – prevent aggrandizement of a state at cost of others Alliance – Milan, Florence, Naples VS Venice, papacy – balance of power w/in Italy Failed lasting cooperation

10. Hanseatic League (Hansa)
German coastal towns (Lübeck, Hamburg, Bremen) dominate trade in Flemish cities and northern trade (fish, grain, metals, honey, wines) Formed commercial/military leagues against pirates/competition Could not compete against growing territorial states

11. Leonardo Bruni
Humanist, Florentine patriot, chancellor of city
Bio of Cicero: New Cicero – political action and literary creation Gained knowledge of Greek – pupil of Byzantine scholar Manuel Chrysoloras Humanist pursued works of Plato, Greek Poets, dramatists, historians, orators

12. Cicero
Classical Roman, statesman, intellectual (and the model of one) Showed Renaissance ideal – active life for one’s state

13. Federigo de...
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