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A.P. Review Chapter 12-Renaissance

1. Jacob Burckhardt
Swiss historian and art critic
Created modern concept of Renaissance
Civilization of The Renaissance in Italy
14th 15th cent. Italy birthplace of modern world and saw revival of antiquity and secularism

2. Baldassare Castiglione
1528 The Book of the Courtier
Ideals expected of aristocrat – fundamental handbook use for hundreds of years 3 basic attributes
Possess qualities of good character, grace, talents, noble birth Military/bodily achievements w/ classical edu. & life of arts (music, drawing, painting) Good impressions, do not hide compliments/grace

3. Cosimo de Medici
Italian merchant prince
First of Medici family to rule Florence
Took control of small merchant oligarchy

Lorenzo the Magnificent
Cosimo’s grandson
Dominated Florence the center of cultural Renaissance

4. Petrarch
Father of Italian Renaissance- lived in Avignon, last decades in Italy Literary career over lawyer (father’s desire)
Italy – guests of princes, city gov.
First intellectual to characterize Middle Ages as period of darkness Promotes mistaken belief medieval culture was ignorant about class. antiquity Blamed scholar philosophy of MA for uncivilized Latin and logic use than rhetoric/harmonize faith-reason Quest for Latin manuscripts

Worried about being too focused in spiritual ideas
Introduced humanist emphasis on classical Latin use
Cicero model for prose/ Virgil and poetry

5. Niccolὸ Machiavelli
Founder of modern, secular power
Secretary of Florentine Council of Ten
Diplomatic missions – witnessed workings of statecraft
15 12 Spanish victory over French – reestablish. Medici power Florence Republicans sent to exile and gave up politics
The Prince
Reflected political power – preoccupation w/ Italy’s political problems and knowledge of ancient Rome Ethical side of prince activity main focus late medieval political doc. Perfect prince – Cesare Borgia – son of Pope...
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