Instructions: Define the following Terms
Sophists – a group of traveling teachers in ancient Greece who argued that the human mind could not understand the universe Hinduism – the major Indian religion, originating from the Aryans who settled after 1500 B.C., and with a belief in reincarnation and many gods Monasticism – practice of living the life of a monk
Caliph – the spiritual leader of the Muslims, a successor of Muhammad Christianity – the religion based on the teachings of Jesus and the Bible First Triumvirate – the first group of people holding power in ancient Rome: Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus Buddhism – the Asian religion founded about 500 B.C. by Siddhartha Gautama, focused on achieving nirvana Mandate of Heaven – the claim of Chinese kings of the Zhou dynasty that they had direct authority from heaven to rule and keep order in the universe Islam – the monotheistic religion based on revelations by Muhammad and written in the Quran Allah – the supreme god of the Muslims
Vernacular – the language or dialect used by ordinary people in a region, such as Spanish, French, English, or German Axum – an African kingdom on the Red Sea, that began around 150 A.D, and competed with Kush in the ivory trade Silk road – a trading route between the Roman Empire and China Humanism – a movement during the Renaissance, based on the humanities, such as poetry, literature, rhetoric, moral philosophy, and history; humans can learn about the world through study Genghis Khan – the founder of the Mongol empire during the 13th century Mesoamerica – the area between Mexico and Central America where ancient empires flourished Filial piety – the duty of family members to make the needs and desires of the male head more important, such as in Confucianism Feudalism – the dominant social system in medieval Europe, ranked from kings to powerful nobles (vassals), to less powerful nobles, to simple knights, and finally peasants/serfs Divine Right of Kings – the doctrine that kings receive their power from God, not from their subjects, as claimed by Louis XIV of France Jihad – “the struggle in the way of God,” as in Islam
Crusades – a series of European Christian military expeditions in the 11th – 13th centuries to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims Day 2
To complete the following you will need to reference pages 300-361, 396-424 Match each of the terms with their correct definition. Then, on the line below, further define the term or provide an example. Clovis, wergild, Gregory I, monk, pope, Charlemagne, feudalism, vassal, fief, feudal contract, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Magna Carta, Crusades, serfs, bourgeoisie, guilds, Concordat of Worms, heresy, Inquisition, Black Death, Joan of Arc, Italian Renaissance, secular, humanism, Martin Luther, Reformation
Clovis Strong military leader who around 500 established the Frankish kingdom and was the first Germanic ruler to convert to Christianity.
Clovis gained the support of the Roman Catholic Church and unified the Franks.
MonkA man who separates himself from ordinary human society in order to dedicate himself to God. Monks ate, slept, worked, and worshipped together.
FeudalismPolitical and social system that developed during the Middle Ages when royal governments were no longer able to defend their subjects.
In Feudalism, vassals served lords and fought battles for them.
FiefUnder feudalism, a grant of land made to a vassal.
Vassals with fiefs were able to hold political power.
Feudal contractThe unwritten rules that determined the relationship between a lord and his vassal. Under the feudal contract, vassals and lords protected each other through military service.
Italian RenaissanceA period of European history in which a new view of human beings emphasized individual ability.
The new view of human beings molded...