PHS 101 – Chapter 1 Objectives
1. Give the advantages of the metric system of units.
2. Identify the five branches of physical science.
3. Trace the scientific method steps.
4. Identify three fundamental quantities measured.
5. Recall the basic units of measurement in the SI, CGS, and British systems.
6. Define the meter, kilogram, and second in terms of physical quantities.
7. Distinguish between mass and weight.
8. Use metric prefixes to express physical quantities.
9. Define liter and relate to other metric quantities.
10. Recognize the basic dimensions and units for area, volume, and speed.
11. Apply density relationship to determine the density, mass, or volume of a substance.
12. Explain the purpose and use of a hydrometer.
13. Convert from one unit to another for a given quantity.
14. Identify the number of significant figures in a value.
15. Apply significant figure rules to multiplication and division operations.
16. Round numerical values.
17. Convert between scientific notation and decimal numbers.
CHAPTER 1 – MEASUREMENTS
1. Physical Sciences
A. Science – organized body of knowledge about natural universe and the processes by which that knowledge is acquired and tested.
B. Divisions of Science (Figure 1.1 – p. 3)
1. Social Sciences – pertain to human society and human relationships
2. Natural Sciences – relate to natural universe
a) Biological (Life) Sciences – the study of living matter
b) Physical Sciences – the study of non-living matter
1. Physics – studies the concepts of matter and energy
2. Chemistry – studies the composition, structure, and reactions of matter.
3. Astronomy – study of the total universe
4. Meteorology – study of the atmosphere
5. Geology – study of the earth
2. The Scientific Method (Figure 1.2 – p. 4)
3. The Senses
1. Sight – reveals the most information about our environment 2. Hearing
4. Standard Units/Systems of Units
A. Fundamental Quantities of Measurement: (there are others)
Length – for measuring ______________________________________
Mass – for measuring ______________________________________
Time – the forward flowing of events
B. Standard Units
A standard unit is a reference or standard value by which other values are compared.
We know what a length of one foot is, so when we talk about the length of a room being 25 feet, we recognize it as 25 times the length of one foot.
C. Systems of Units
Two broad systems of units:
1) British (or American)
Advantages of metric system:
| | |Basic Units for Fundamental Quantities of Measurement | | |Metric |British | | |mks or System Int’l (SI) |CGS System | | |Length | | | | |Mass | | | | |Time | | | |
D. SI (mks) Units Defined
meter (> yard) –...
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