Rebirth and Revolution: Nation-Building in East Asia and the Pacific Rim

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Chapter 35

Chapter 35
Rebirth and Revolution: Nation-Building in East Asia and the Pacific Rim

I.Introduction
i. Japan the anomaly in non-Western societies
a. Fought imperialism & high level of industrialization
b. Imitation of Western rivals - imperialist tendencies
ii. Korea has also emerged as leading industrial center
iii. China and Vietnam resemble other emerging nations
a. Suffered from exploitive terms of exchange w/ West
b. Had to deal with underdevelopment, overpopulation
c. And..poverty and environmental degradation
d. Sound familiar?
e. But...they also saw collapse of 1000 year civilization
iv. Confucian system destroyed in Vietnam and China
a. External aggression + internal upheaval
b. Imperialism destroyed political institutions
i. Left nothing for nation-building
v. Recent themes
a. Confucianism and traditions reworked/adapted
b. Economic development
c. Growing independence and self-assertion
II. East Asia in th Postwar Settlements
A. Introduction
i. Divisions after WWII
a. Korea divided between Russian/US zone
b. Taiwan returned to China - ruled by Chiang Kai Shek
c. US regained Philippines, pledged quick turnover w/ bases
d. Europeans retook control of Vietnam, Malay and Indonesia
e. Japan occupied by US forces
B. New Divisions and the End of Empires
i. Decolonization led to independence for Malaya, Indonesia, Philippines
ii. Taiwan ruled by Chiang Kai Shek, mainland to Mao
a. Taiwan emergs as separate republic
iii. US intervention preserves South Korean independence
C. Japanese Recovery
i. Recovered economy in surprising speed
a. US provided opportunity for selective westernization
ii. New political system
a. Ruled by General Douglas MacArthur
b. Got rid of wartime political structure
i. military disbanded
ii. police decentralized
iii. officials removed
iv. political prisoners released
c. Democratization
i. women suffrage
ii. encouraging labor unions
iii. abolishing Shintoism as state religion
d. People in favor of demilitarization
e. Parliament system easy to incorporate - already have history
iii. New economic pattern
a. Broke up landed estates
b. Tried, but failed to break up zaibatsus
iv. Other changes
a. Military abolished forever - unique for industrialized nation
b. Emperor becomes symbolic figurehead only
c. 1963 law for taking care of elderly
v. Japanese society
a. Education - reduced nationalism in textbooks
i. Back to state control after occupation
ii. Have to teach tradition to children
b. Extreme meritocracy - rigid examination system
D. Korea: Intervention and War
i. Gave Russia control of north in exchange for potential help against Japan
ii. North Korea - People's Democratic Republic of Korea
a. Communist totalitarian state - Kim Il-Sung until 1994
iii. South Korea - Republic of Korea
a. Parliamentary institutions but authoritarian
iv. Korean War
a. 1950-1953 - N. Korea invades, S. Korea + United Nations pushes back
b. China gets invovlved, pushes back to original borders
c. Sign armistice
v. Two divergent paths since then
a. N. Korea - isolated one-man rule
i. Power to one political party + military
b. S. Korea - w/ help from US economic + military bases
vi. Tensions continued between two nations with border clashes
E. Emerging Stability in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore
i. Nationalists take over Taiwan island after losing civil war
a. Communists couldn't threaten Taiwan - no navy
a. Becomes authoritarian - must keep island under control
c. Support of US - convinced Chiang to not attack mainland
ii. Hong Kong - returned to China from British control in 1997
a. Chinese population swelled - economy boomed
iii. Singapore
a. British naval base until 1971
b. Became strong port and...
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